National Strategy - Teaching and learning in the Key Stage 3 Strategy
This booklet is a self-study guide for trainee English teachers, providing additional support and guidance for the teaching and learning approaches suggested in the Key Stage 3 Strategy.
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9 Summary

This unit has focused on planning a project. At this stage you may find it useful to recap on the learning objectives introduced at the beginning of the unit and to think about some of the issues associated with them.

  1. You should now be able to develop plans with relevant people to achieve the project's goals. This will involve identifying and finding ways of including the appropriate people in the project.

  2. You should be able
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7.5 Materials costs

There will be many categories of materials, supplies and consumables used in a project. Once again, the materials that are in constant use and easily and ‘freely’ available in an organisation might be overlooked in costing the project. For example, it is easy to assume that stationary will be available in much the same way as it is for day-to-day work. However, a project is a bounded activity, and if you are to understand the full cost of achieving the outcomes, you will need to know
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6.3 Identifying the critical path

The critical path describes the sequence of tasks that would enable the project to be completed in the shortest possible time. It is based on the idea that some tasks must be completed before others can begin. A critical path diagram is a useful tool for scheduling the dependencies and controlling a project. In order to identify the critical path the length of time that each task will take must be calculated.

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5.3 Team structure and responsibilities

Teams have great difficulty in working effectively if they are too large to work together conveniently. Six to eight people is often considered to be about right. Where the project needs more staff to deliver all of the outcomes, the structure could consist of a number of teams, each with a team leader. In some projects there may not be a team but, instead, a number of individuals or groups making a specialist contribution at an appropriate time and a method for co-ordinating these inputs bec
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5.1 Introduction

One of the most difficult aspects of planning a project is estimating how long it will take to complete each key stage. An estimate might be based on:

  • the size of the tasks and the effort required to complete them;

  • the number of days that are not available for working on the project;

  • historical data from other projects, including the experience of colleagues.

Where a project has a fixed end-date (for
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4 Identifying deliverables

The project brief will identify the goals of the project and may express some of these as key objectives. At an early stage of planning you will need to identify all of the project objectives and the deliverables that are implied or required from each objective.

Each objective will identify a clear outcome. The outcome is the deliverable. In some cases, the outcome will be some sort of change achieved and in other cases it will be the production of something new. In either case, the pro
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3.3 Using a logic diagram to identify key stages

To use a bottom-up approach to planning, the activity schedule is best compiled by drawing on the collective experience and knowledge of the project team that is going to carry out the tasks. Grouping their ideas into related tasks will remove duplication and you can then start to identify activities which have to run in series and those that could run concurrently. Some tasks have to be sequential because they are dependent on one another: you can't put the roof on a house until you have wal
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3.1 Barriers to planning

The planning stage of a project usually takes place before the activities start, but not always. In any case, planning always continues during the implementation of a project because there is always a need to change some aspects and to revise plans.

Activity 1


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2.2 The classic six-stage project management model

This model also consists of stages, but, unlike the sequential flow of the project life-cycle, the six-stage model assumes that some stages are carried out simultaneously. In particular, the model (Figure 3) assumes that communications will take place throughout the project. It also assumes that team building, leading and motivation will take place once the project has been defined and continue until it ends.


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2.1 Introduction

The planning process aims to demonstrate how the project outcomes will be achieved successfully within both the required timescale, the agreed budget and the required quality. As each project is different, there are a number of ways of taking an overview of a project. Two of these are:

  • the project life-cycle, which is a useful way of understanding the different phases of a project as it progresses, and

  • the classic six-stage project ma
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