5.2 New Zealand's changing environment

In this study I want to explore some possible effects of this new trade on the environment of one of the countries involved. I've chosen New Zealand, partly because the developments we have just been discussing happened only a few decades after the first large-scale settlements of Europeans, and had a strong influence on the direction of its economy. Some background information will help to set the scene.

New Zealand consists of two mountainous islands with a total area similar to that
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7 Conclusion

One might think of the different interpretations of internationally recognised notions of rights and justice as running along a spectrum, from which we shall now identify four different positions.

  • The first interpretation would argue that, overall, the extension of rights to the international sphere has been benign and effective. It has led and will lead to further successful claims for justice.

Evidence for the development of a globa
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4.3 Asymmetry between labour and capital

Finally, stepping back to get a broader picture, I would like to point to the asymmetry built into the emerging institutional framework governing international economic relations, of which the WTO is one important pillar. The various WTO agreements encourage free movement of goods and certain kinds of services. Possible agreements on cross-border investment and competition policy may allow for freer international movement of capital, already encouraged by the IMF. Yet there is no move towards
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5.3 Order and chaos

How can we explain a sudden switch of behaviour at a particular temperature? There must be two competing influences (say X and Y) that depend differently on temperature. Figure 23 indicates how a unique temperature (a so-called critical temperature, Tc) arises,
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5.2 What's in a phase?

In an engineering and scientific context, a phase is an arrangement of atoms that is identifiable through its recurrence – the same pattern is found time and again. For instance, the compound of hydrogen and oxygen that we call water turns up all over the place in the same form as a runny, colourless liquid; this is a specific phase of the compound H2O. In water, the atoms apparently organise themselves according to what they are and the ambient conditions of temperature a
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5.8 Plagiarism

Referencing is not only useful as a way of sharing information, but also as a means of ensuring that due credit is given to other people’s work. In the electronic information age, it is easy to copy and paste from journal articles and web pages into your own work. But if you do use someone else’s work, you should acknowledge the source by giving a correct reference.

Taking someone's work and not indicating where you took it from is termed plagiarism and is regarded as an infringemen
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4.4 O is for Objectivity

One of the characteristics of ‘good’ information is that it should be balanced and present both sides of an argument or issue. This way the reader is left to weigh up the evidence and make a decision. In reality, we recognise that no information is truly objective.

This means that the onus is on you, the reader, to develop a critical awareness of the positions represented in what you read, and to take account of this when you interpret the information. In some cases, authors may be
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2.1.1 Choosing keywords

Keywords are significant words which define the subject you are looking for. The importance of keywords is illustrated by the fact that there is a whole industry around providing advice to companies on how to select keywords for their websites that are likely to make it to the top of results lists generated by search engines. We often choose keywords as part of an iterative process; usually if we don't hit on the right search terms straight off, most of us tweak them as we go along based on t
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1.1 Assessing your current level of knowledge

If you explore all the resources and activities in this unit, you might need to allow between two and nine hours to complete it.

Before you read this guide, why not use the self-assessment questions on the screens to rate your current level of knowledge?

Print or save these questions and for each question, mark the most appropriate number on the scale. When you have finished, you can review your answers. A score of three or less might indicate a gap in your knowledge or u
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2.9 Conclusions

This reading has addressed four questions: what characterises a group, what characterises a team, how project teams are organised and what can make teams ineffective. Groups can be formal or informal depending on the circumstances. Work groups or teams are generally more focused on particular tasks and outcomes, and use processes that aim to achieve a unity of purpose, communication and action. I looked at six major types of team: functional, project, matrix, contract, self-managing and self-
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5.6.2 Structure and crystallinity

In addition to the structural constraints mentioned in Section 2, where tacticity and geometrical isomerism control whether or not a polymer chain can crystallise, molecular mass and copolymerization are other important variables which can influence crystallising properties. A related effect is plasticization where a low molecular mass mat
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5.6.1 Morphology of polymer crystallites

The fundamental unit of structure formed by crystalline polymers which is accessible using the optical microscope is the spherulite. Isolated spherulites are formed easily at relatively slow spherulite growth rates such as those exhibited by polypropylene and isotactic polystyrene. Unlike aramid fibres where the degree of crystallisation is close to 100 per cent (Author(s): The Open University

5.3.1 Time-temperature superposition

For amorphous polymers above their Tgs, there is a convenient approximation which makes experiments easier. It is known as time-temperature superposition, and it relates time to temperature for viscoelastic materials. A sequence of measurements of ER (t) is performed at different temperatures at a fixed initial strain. The time scale might be limited between several seconds and say 100 hours. The curves obtained on uncrosslinked polyisobutylen
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5.3 Viscoelasticity and master curves

An immediate consequence of the viscoelasticity of polymers is that their deformations under stress are time dependent. If the imposed mechanical stress is held constant then the resultant strain will increase with time, i.e. the polymer creeps. If a constant deformation is imposed then the induced stress will relax with time (stress relaxation). Author(s): The Open University

5.2.2 Viscous behaviour

Viscous flow is not recoverable. When the stress is removed from a viscous fluid the strain remains. Hence the work energy is not returned to the forcing agency and has to be otherwise dissipated. Figure 45 illustrates this schematically by showing the strain response in such a viscous material when a simple stress history has
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5.2 Viscoelasticity of polymers

The simplest models for the deformation behaviour of an ideal material are those of Hookean linear elasticity in the solid state, and Newtonian linear viscosity in the liquid state. The end point of elastic deformation is either fracture or plastic flow, with the latter taking place at a constant yield stress in the ideal case. Whilst the behaviour of many real materials does approximate to these idealised models, that of polymers deviates markedly from them. In particular, their solid state
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5.1 The behaviour of polymers

The manufacture of polymer products is controlled by two often conflicting demands: the quality of the finished article in terms of its response to its environment and the ease or difficulty of processing it to shape. Both factors are controlled by what is termed viscoelasticity, namely, the behaviour of the polymer in response to applied stress or strain, and temperature. It is important to appreciate the duality in terms of the elastic and viscous responses of polymer solids and poly
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4.6.1 Prices of polymers

Prices of bulk and speciality polymers (Table 9) broadly reflect the degree of chemical processing and treatment needed to make them. Thus the polyolefins, which are directly polymerized from cracker streams, are generally the cheapest followed by vinyl derivatives of ethylene like PS and PVC. Derived polymers which require mo
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2.3.2 Chain branching

A germ of the idea is shown by the formulae for 2- and 3-methylpentane in Figure 16. A single methyl group (CH3—) can occur in two different positions along an essentially linear carbon-carbon chain. The methyl group is a very simple kind of branch along the chain, and it is easy to extend the idea to much larger
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3.4 Systems concepts: structure

As suggested earlier, the structure of a system is its functional or physical arrangement; the term that is often used in systems engineering is ‘architecture’. The architecture of a system can be deconstructed to reveal its constituent elements. I suggested in Section 1 that an existing knowledge base has an important bearing on the way in which a change problem is perceived. The way that this is conceived by one armaments system integrator is illustrated in
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