Limiting Reagents
We are now ready to pull everything we know about reaction stoichiometry together, and answer the question: Given some initial amount of reactants, what should be present after a chemical reaction goes to completion? The procedure for answering this question is often called the "limiting reagent problem." You'll see why this name is appropriate in the following video.
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Meals-Ready-To-Eat Scenario
You and a friend are hiking the Appalachian Trail when a storm comes through. You stop to eat, but find that all available firewood is too wet to start a fire. From your Chem 106 class, you remember that heat is given off by some chemical reactions; if you could mix two solutions together to produce an exothermic reaction, you might be able to cook the food you brought along for the hike. Luckily, being the dedicated chemist that you are, you never go anywhere without taking along a couple chemi
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Mixed Reception Scenario
This activity is set in a research group that is developing an antivenom for spider bites. In the opening scene, Nelson Pogline, a talented graduate student, dies unexpectedly at a university reception. As a detective, you must use chemistry concepts to determine if this was murder and if so, solve the case. You can interview suspects using Quicktime movies, investigate the crime scene for clues with Quicktime Virtual Reality images, and analyze the evidence from the crime lab. This activity req
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Ozone Scenario
During the first kinetics lecture, we traced the efforts of atmospheric chemists to explain the depletion of ozone in the upper atmosphere. (The powerpoint slides have been posted on Blackboard for your review.) U2 spy planes gathered much of the initial data that linked ClO in the stratosphere to the ozone depletion. The data collected during these flights showed the concentrations of various chemical species in the stratosphere, but did not measure how fast the processes were occurring. To det
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Product Formation and Percent Yield
In another tutorial, we considered the amount of reactant consumed by a chemical reaction. Here, we'll consider the amount of product formed by a reaction.
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Reaction Stoichiometry
Reaction stoichiometry allows us to determine the amount of substance that is consumed or produced by a reaction. The following video considers the first part of this: how much of a reactant is consumed in a chemical reaction. Product formation is discussed elsewhere.
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Step by Step Glycolysis
You can browse the eleven steps of anaerobic glycolysis and view three kinds of information: reaction data (the enzyme, reaction type and thermodynamic data), equation and animation. Glükoosi anaeroobne lagundamine etappide kaupa. Üleminekud, reaktsiooni vaheühendid, üldinfo ning lühike animatsioon molekulimudelitega. Sobib ainevahetuse käsitlemisel üldbioloogias. You can browse the eleven steps of anaerobic glycolysis and view three kinds of information: reaction data (the enzyme, rea
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Step by Step Krebs cycle
These pages show the steps of the metabolic pathway called the Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle. Otherwise known as the citric acid cycle and the Krebs cycle. Data sheets, reaction diagrams and animations are provided for each step. Krebs cycle or the citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle,occurs in mitochondria, is the common pathway to completely oxidize fuel molecules which mostly is acetyl CoA ,the product from the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. It enters the cycle and passes
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Lennard-Jones Potential Model
The EJS Lennard-Jones Potential model shows the dynamics of a particle of mass m within this potential. You can drag particle to change its position and you can drag the energy-line to change its total energy. The Lennard-Jones potential function is a reasonably accurate model of interactions between noble gas atoms.  The binding energy epsilon is the depth of the potential well and minimum molecular separation are set equal to unity.  This simulation uses uses a natural system of units the m
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Magmatic Differentiation
This set of lecture notes covers a number of topics including magmatic differentiation, chemical variation in rock suites, partial melting, fractional melting, crystal fractionation, Bowen's reaction series, and magma mixing. Graphs discussed include oxides vs. SiO2, and MgO vs. SiO2. The notes are ...
Author(s): Stephen Nelson

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Metamorphic Reactions, Isograds, and Reaction Mechanisms
These lecture notes cover types of metamorphic reactions. Topics discussed include univariant and divariant reactions, mineral compatibility diagrams (AFM ternary), metamorphic reaction mechanisms, and metamorphic field gradients. The notes contain many ternary diagrams and graphs illustrating the relationship ...
Author(s): Stephen Nelson

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"Neuropharmacology, January IAP 2009"
" The neuropharmacology course will discuss the drug-induced changes in functioning of the nervous system. The specific focus of this course will be to provide a description of the cellular and molecular actions of drugs on synaptic transmission. This course will also refer to specific diseases of the nervous system and their treatment in addition to giving an overview of the techniques used for the study of neuropharmacology. This course is offered during the Independent Activities Period (IAP)
Author(s): Tropea, Daniela

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"Global Enterprise for Micro-Mechanics and Molecular Medicine (GEM4), Summer 2006"
"GEM4 VisionGEM4 has brought together researchers and professionals in major institutions across the globe with distinctly different, but complementary, expertise and facilities to address significant problems at the intersections of select topics of engineering, life sciences, technology, medicine and public health.GEM4 creates new models for interactions across scientific disciplinary boundaries whereby problems spanning the range of fundamental science to clinical studies and public health ca
Author(s): Kamm, Roger D.

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Normalization of relations with Communist China
Following on from President Carter's December 15, 1978 announcement recognizing the People's Republic of China and the establishment of diplomatic relations, Evelyn Wong looks into the divided reaction of Boston's Chinese American community to United States-China normalization. Peter H.F. Wong, President of the New England Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, thinks the normalization of relations is entirely inappropriate.
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Simulated Laboratories and Lessons in Microbiology and Biochemistry
This chapter provides the background and selected applications of computer based investigative biology, biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology modules. These simulations can be used as a part of lecture, pre-lab work or as laboratory exercises.
Author(s): Samuel Kaplan

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The Power of Genetics: Using Classical and Molecular Genetics to Study "Real" Developmental Phenomen
The goal of this laboratory exercise is to provide a laboratory experience for undergraduates, in which they apply fundamental genetic principles to the study of a complex developmental process, specifically, root cell shape determination in the simple plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In this exercise, students identify putative root cell shape mutants, analyze an F2 segregating population, and finally use molecular techniques to determine where a specific mutation in located within the genome. This
Author(s): Leonard Pysh

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Use PCR and a Single Hair to Produce a "DNA Fingerprint"
As a former student once commented, "PCR is the sliced bread of molecular biology". Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a process that allows an investigator to amplify a portion of a single piece of DNA into over one billion copies. We have used PCR with our Introductory Biology students to generate a simple "DNA fingerprint". This exercise will outline all the steps required to generate a DNA fingerprint for each student during two lab meetings. This article covers the background information co
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Using A Molecular Marker to Study Genetic Equilibrium in Drosophila melanogaster
Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), genetic variation in a laboratory population of Drosophila is characterized. The population contains flies with two variants of a molecular marker. DNA from individual flies is amplified by PCR, generating products which are either "long" or "short" when visualized on an agarose gel. Three PCR "genotypes" (long/long, long/short, and short/short) are distinguishable and should be present in Hardy-Weinberg frequencies. The exercise requires one session for gr
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What I Could Teach Darwin Using "Darwin 2000"
A laboratory to demonstrate the use of the "Darwin 2000" website to train undergraduates to use online molecular databases and analysis tools, fostering their understanding of how genes and proteins evolve.
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3.3 Summary of Section 5

  1. After ejaculation some sperm penetrate the cervical mucus, and on arriving in the uterus become capacitated.

  2. A few sperm swim up the Fallopian tube containing the recently ovulated egg.

  3. In the tube the sperm become activated. This involves changes to the membranes and a change in the swimming pattern.

  4. Enzymes from the acrosome allow the sperm to get next to the egg, by removing follicle cells and digesting
    Author(s): The Open University

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    Copyright © 2013 The Open University