Reaction stoichiometry allows us to determine the amount of substance that is consumed or produced by a reaction. The following video considers the first part of this: how much of a reactant is consumed in a chemical reaction. Product formation is discussed elsewhere.
Step by Step Glycolysis
You can browse the eleven steps of anaerobic glycolysis and view three kinds of information: reaction data (the enzyme, reaction type and thermodynamic data), equation and animation. Glükoosi anaeroobne lagundamine etappide kaupa. Üleminekud, reaktsiooni vaheühendid, üldinfo ning lühike animatsioon molekulimudelitega. Sobib ainevahetuse käsitlemisel üldbioloogias. You can browse the eleven steps of anaerobic glycolysis and view three kinds of information: reaction data (the enzyme, rea
Step by Step Krebs cycle
These pages show the steps of the metabolic pathway called the Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle. Otherwise known as the citric acid cycle and the Krebs cycle. Data sheets, reaction diagrams and animations are provided for each step. Krebs cycle or the citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle,occurs in mitochondria, is the common pathway to completely oxidize fuel molecules which mostly is acetyl CoA ,the product from the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. It enters the cycle and passes
Lennard-Jones Potential Model
The EJS Lennard-Jones Potential model shows the dynamics of a particle of mass m within this potential. You can drag particle to change its position and you can drag the energy-line to change its total energy. The Lennard-Jones potential function is a reasonably accurate model of interactions between noble gas atoms. The binding energy epsilon is the depth of the potential well and minimum molecular separation are set equal to unity. This simulation uses uses a natural system of units the m
This set of lecture notes covers a number of topics including magmatic differentiation, chemical variation in rock suites, partial melting, fractional melting, crystal fractionation, Bowen's reaction series, and magma mixing. Graphs discussed include oxides vs. SiO2, and MgO vs. SiO2. The notes are ...
Metamorphic Reactions, Isograds, and Reaction Mechanisms
These lecture notes cover types of metamorphic reactions. Topics discussed include univariant and divariant reactions, mineral compatibility diagrams (AFM ternary), metamorphic reaction mechanisms, and metamorphic field gradients. The notes contain many ternary diagrams and graphs illustrating the relationship ...
"Neuropharmacology, January IAP 2009"
" The neuropharmacology course will discuss the drug-induced changes in functioning of the nervous system. The specific focus of this course will be to provide a description of the cellular and molecular actions of drugs on synaptic transmission. This course will also refer to specific diseases of the nervous system and their treatment in addition to giving an overview of the techniques used for the study of neuropharmacology. This course is offered during the Independent Activities Period (IAP)
"Global Enterprise for Micro-Mechanics and Molecular Medicine (GEM4), Summer 2006"
"GEM4 VisionGEM4 has brought together researchers and professionals in major institutions across the globe with distinctly different, but complementary, expertise and facilities to address significant problems at the intersections of select topics of engineering, life sciences, technology, medicine and public health.GEM4 creates new models for interactions across scientific disciplinary boundaries whereby problems spanning the range of fundamental science to clinical studies and public health ca
Normalization of relations with Communist China
Following on from President Carter's December 15, 1978 announcement recognizing the People's Republic of China and the establishment of diplomatic relations, Evelyn Wong looks into the divided reaction of Boston's Chinese American community to United States-China normalization. Peter H.F. Wong, President of the New England Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, thinks the normalization of relations is entirely inappropriate.
Simulated Laboratories and Lessons in Microbiology and Biochemistry
This chapter provides the background and selected applications of computer based investigative biology, biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology modules. These simulations can be used as a part of lecture, pre-lab work or as laboratory exercises.
The Power of Genetics: Using Classical and Molecular Genetics to Study "Real" Developmental Phenomen
The goal of this laboratory exercise is to provide a laboratory experience for undergraduates, in which they apply fundamental genetic principles to the study of a complex developmental process, specifically, root cell shape determination in the simple plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In this exercise, students identify putative root cell shape mutants, analyze an F2 segregating population, and finally use molecular techniques to determine where a specific mutation in located within the genome. This
Use PCR and a Single Hair to Produce a "DNA Fingerprint"
As a former student once commented, "PCR is the sliced bread of molecular biology". Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a process that allows an investigator to amplify a portion of a single piece of DNA into over one billion copies. We have used PCR with our Introductory Biology students to generate a simple "DNA fingerprint". This exercise will outline all the steps required to generate a DNA fingerprint for each student during two lab meetings. This article covers the background information co
Using A Molecular Marker to Study Genetic Equilibrium in Drosophila melanogaster
Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), genetic variation in a laboratory population of Drosophila is characterized. The population contains flies with two variants of a molecular marker. DNA from individual flies is amplified by PCR, generating products which are either "long" or "short" when visualized on an agarose gel. Three PCR "genotypes" (long/long, long/short, and short/short) are distinguishable and should be present in Hardy-Weinberg frequencies. The exercise requires one session for gr
What I Could Teach Darwin Using "Darwin 2000"
A laboratory to demonstrate the use of the "Darwin 2000" website to train undergraduates to use online molecular databases and analysis tools, fostering their understanding of how genes and proteins evolve.
4.1.1 Summary of Section 4 The integration of physiological and molecular responses links an environmental signal to a physiological response. Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are chaperone proteins that maintain the structure and function of proteins in cells exposed to high temperatures. The initial response of cells to high temperatures is rapid transcription of heat-shock genes, e.g. Hsp70, which is possible because Hsp70 is normally partly transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Resumption of transcription requi
The integration of physiological and molecular responses links an environmental signal to a physiological response. Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are chaperone proteins that maintain the structure and function of proteins in cells exposed to high temperatures. The initial response of cells to high temperatures is rapid transcription of heat-shock genes, e.g. Hsp70, which is possible because Hsp70 is normally partly transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Resumption of transcription requi
3.4 Liver The liver lies towards the right of the abdomen, as you saw in Figure 1. It is a large and important organ in the body, with many functions. It is important in helping control glucose levels, which it does by storing glucose. To do this it changes glucose into glycogen, a substance made of chains of glucose units stuck together.
The liver lies towards the right of the abdomen, as you saw in Figure 1. It is a large and important organ in the body, with many functions. It is important in helping control glucose levels, which it does by storing glucose. To do this it changes glucose into glycogen, a substance made of chains of glucose units stuck together.
2. Catch That Train & Ride (Upper Intermediate)
Learn Italian online with LearnItalianPod! We definitely did not expect such an enthusiastic reaction for this new "Upper Intermediate Level Series" - everyone seems to be finding our "a day in the life of our Italian friend Italo" very useful and entertaining, and that's a terrific thing! Thanks everyone for all of your positive feedback; [...]
"Experimental Microbial Genetics, Fall 2008"
" In this class, students engage in independent research projects to probe various aspects of the physiology of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, an opportunistic pathogen isolated from the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Students use molecular genetics to examine survival in stationary phase, antibiotic resistance, phase variation, toxin production, and secondary metabolite production. Projects aim to discover the molecular basis for these processes using both classical and cutting
Medical animator David Bolinsky presents 3 minutes of stunning animation that show the bustling life inside a cell. Bolinsky describes how he uses animation to help people see the beauty in the biological sciences. He worked on a project with Harvard to show molecular and cellular biology in a way that makes it easy for students to understand.
For all the phenomena of The Mechanical Universe, Isaac Newton laid down the laws. A refinement on Galileo's law of inertia, Newton's first law states that every body remains at rest or continues in uniform motion unless an unbalanced force acts on it. His second law, the most profound statement in classical mechanics, relates the causes to the changes of motion in eve