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Diversity in the Changing State
The Gold Rush had a tremendous impact on the population and culture of California. Before the Gold Rush, the population consisted mainly of Native Californians and Californios (settlers and landowners of mixed Spanish, Native Californian, and African descent). But gold fever brought people to California from all over the country and world. The Anglo Americans (of English, Irish, or Scots descent), other Europeans (including Italians, Russians, and others), Chinese, Asians, African Americans, and
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Dust Bowl Migration
In 1931, a severe drought hit the Southern and Midwestern plains. As crops died and winds picked up, dust storms began. As the "Dust Bowl" photograph shows, crops literally blew away in "black blizzards" as years of poor farming practices and over-cultivation combined with the lack of rain. By 1934, 75% of the United States was severely affected by this terrible drought.The one-two punch of economic depression and bad weather put many farmers out of business. In the early 1930s, thousands of Dus
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Early Advertising
The modern advertising industry really began in the early 1900s. These early advertising images show how companies approached the business of selling products, places, and ideas in the early 20th century. Overview The promotion of products, particularly national brands, began to become more prevalent in the early 1900s. Some categories of advertising shown in this group of images are still with us today: cars, cigarettes, and products aimed at homemakers. In California, car dealers and garages
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Growing Ethnic Diversity
People from around the world continued to come to California in the early 1900s, many in search of work and a better life. These images reflect some of the diverse ethnic groups that came to the West Coast from locations around the globe. They also illustrate some of the challenges they faced in assimilating into California society.
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Hard Times
The US stock market crash of 1929 set off the most severe economic depression in the Western world. The so-called Great Depression lasted more than a decade, until approximately 1941. In the United States, the general atmosphere was one of desolation, as expressed in the Dorothea Lange photograph "Thirteen Million Unemployed Fill the City in the Early Thirties," which shows men leaning against a wall in San Francisco. Many photographs in this topic were taken by Lange, one of the primary chronic
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Help and a New Deal
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (photographed in 1935 with his wife, Eleanor) created the New Deal as a solution for bringing the United States out of the Great Depression. The New Deal created a new role for the federal government, one that involved infusing money into the economy largely through the creation of new jobs and social programs. One photograph shows Roosevelt signing the Social Security Act of 1935, which was designed to keep citizens from becoming destitute. The New Deal also
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Japanese American Internment
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which established 10 internment camps for "national security" purposes. Although most internment camps were along the West Coast, others could be found in Wyoming and Colorado, and as far east as Arkansas. One photo shows Japanese American boys in San Francisco shortly before the evacuation order; another shows a woman waiting for the evacuation bus in Hayward; approximately 660 people being evacuated
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Life on the Home Front
As the picture of the 1942 Santa Ana High School graduating class shows, uniformed graduates were headed into the service right after graduation day some may have been volunteers and others drafted. Those who weren't eligible for service could volunteer to help the war effort at home. As the images in this topic show, people at home contributed to the war effort in a variety of ways. Many people readied for possible enemy attack. In one photograph men carry glass globes that will dim street lam
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Native American Assimilation
Beginning in the 1700s, the Spaniards built the California Missions to make contact with Native Americans in the hope of converting them to Christianity. One painting by a Russian artist depicts a group of Native Americans dancing in front of Mission Dolores in San Francisco; a later photograph shows a group of nuns with westernized native children in front of the Pala Mission in Southern California. As European Americans continued to migrate West throughout the 1800s, they came into conflict wi
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Struggles for Social Justice
The 1960s and early 1970s were characterized by a series of protests as groups that had long felt disempowered sought to make their voices heard. California was the heart of many of these new movements. The protests put into motion by the Civil Rights movement evolved to address social justice issues affecting many groups, including students facing the draft, ordinary people protesting the war, farm workers fighting for better working conditions, Chicanos expressing a new identity, and African A
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Watts
By the late 1960s, despite the ongoing Civil Rights movement, frustration over poverty, discrimination, injustice, and high unemployment among African Americans helped fuel unrest in many poor, black urban areas. On August 11, 1965, sparked by an angry confrontation between a white police officer and an African American motorcyclist, the Watts neighborhood in Los Angeles erupted in a large-scale civil disorder that lasted for six days and became known as the Watts Riots. Thirty-four people were
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Dynamic National Archive
Welcome to the Dynamic National Archive (formerly the Timeline of American Women of Architecture). The mission of the Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation is to expand historical knowledge and cultural recognition of women’s contribution to American architecture of the 20th century. We define architecture broadly to include not only building design, but also landscape architecture, interior design, and urban planning. The Dynamic National Archive (DNA) is the first stage of an ongoing projec
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American Journeys
Everything teachers and students need for a successful National History Day project is available at this site -- topic ideas, lesson plans, research advice, and thousands of pages of fully indexed eyewitness accounts of North American exploration. Follow famous explorers. Witness first contacts between cultures. See how the exchange of goods and ideas forever altered people's daily life and ideas. Find out what "America" meant to the people who arrived here long ago and to the people who greeted
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Race and Slavery Petitions Project
In the summer of 1991, Loren Schweninger, a professor of history, began traveling the South visiting courthouses and state archives in search of legal petitions related to race and slavery. He expected to find dry facts buried in legal terminology. What he actually found was a wealth of new information about peoples' lives and circumstances between the American Revolution and the Civil War. The petitions portray, in vivid and personal terms, the contrasts, ambivalence, contradictions, ironies, a
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Rights not set

Power of Positive Parenting
This course has been developed using portions from several of the books, videos, and audio products produced by Glenn Latham. These materials will give parents the skills necessary to raise children well. Glenn Latham said of his book, The Power of Positive Parenting, which is his definitive book, upon which this course is built, that it has been subjected to more independent, scientific scrutiny than any parenting book in print today. In every instance, it has been shown to be an effective pare
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Idaho Civil Rights Program: American Indian Emphasis Program (AIEP)
This site provides an introduction to the American Indian Emphasis Program, which provides sound program practices in administering the Idaho Civil Rights Program. The site features contact information and an overview of the AIEP's goals.
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Creativity and Entrepreneurship
This course has been designed to provide students with an overall understanding of entrepreneurship and to prepare them for developing a mindset for thinking creatively. Targeted at students who would like to create their own businesses, it is meant to teach students how to live and work outside of the bureaucracy, to learn to dream about new ideas and new ventures, to push the edges of the envelope, and to see entrepreneurship as reality. The focus of the course is to start small and grow big--
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Emerging Enterprise Consulting (Syracuse University)
Entrepreneurship is the key to the American dream. Sustainable growth and an enhanced standard of living for all Americans are dependent on a vibrant, growing entrepreneurial sector. There is a need for entrepreneurs with creative business concepts and the courage to turn these concepts into sustainable enterprises that create jobs for citizens and create value for customers. There is a key difference, however, between starting a business and growing one. The majority of small businesses fail to
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Entrepreneurship For Engineers
Objectives: Create an awareness of the value of an entrepreneurial educational experience; create an awareness of the relationship between entrepreneurship and engineering; create an awareness of the role of entrepreneurs in the growth of the American and world economy; introduce the student to the psychological, cultural and economic nature of entrepreneurial activity in the US and the global community; create an awareness of the career paths available to the entrepreneur; introduce the skill s
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Foundations of Entrepreneurship
The purpose of this course is to explore the many dimensions of new venture creation and growth and to foster innovation and new business formations in independent and corporate settings. This course uses and integrates many of the disciplines in the MBA curriculum. This course appeals to individuals who have a strong desire to become an entrepreneur, or work in a startup, early stage or entrepreneurial minded company that may be pursued now or later in their careers. It also is for those indivi
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