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The 2014 state of the union


Author(s): The Economist

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4.13.4 Volume

The large volume of delegated legislation produced every year (some 3,000 SIs annually) means that it is very difficult for Members of Parliament, let alone the general public, to keep up to date with the present law. This is exacerbated by the fact that delegated legislation is made in private, unlike Acts of Parliament which are made following public debates in Parliament.

Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this block:

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Human Rights and Politics in Israel-Palestine
Human rights are central to the fraught politics between Israelis and Palestinians, these two panelists argue. Any conceivable solution to such an endless conflict must begin by acknowledging the current bleak realities of Palestinian life under Israeli rule, they say.

Anat Biletzki and the group B'T

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8 Websites for further information:
This unit looks at two topics that are of immense worldwide social, economic, ethical, and political importance – ‘addiction’ and ‘neural ageing’. You will develop a Master's level approach to the study of specific issues within these two important subject areas.
Author(s): The Open University

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7 Summary

Polymers are long chain molecules with properties dominated by their chain behaviour and the nature of their chemical make-up or constitution. The distinction between thermoplastics and thermosets has become rather blurred with the development of new materials for more demanding environments than previously. They include high performance polymers which are more resistant to high temperatures, possess greater moduli or strengths, and can be combined with additives to enhance their intrinsic pr
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1.2.2 Thermoplastics and thermosets

As already stated, polymers including rigid plastics were first developed in the last century from natural precursors. The sealing wax employed by the Victorians, for example, was usually based on the natural polymer shellac, an exudate of the Indian lac insect. Shellac is an early natural thermoplastic – defined as a material which softens and hardens reversibly on heating and cooling. In theory these reversible physical changes will take place without a corresponding change in the chemica
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6.5 Changing patterns of energy use
Access to safe, clean and sustainable energy supplies is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity during the twenty-first century. This unit will survey the world’s present energy systems and their sustainability problems, together with some of the possible solutions to those problems and how these might emerge in practice.
Author(s): The Open University

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6.1 Introduction
Access to safe, clean and sustainable energy supplies is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity during the twenty-first century. This unit will survey the world’s present energy systems and their sustainability problems, together with some of the possible solutions to those problems and how these might emerge in practice.
Author(s): The Open University

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5.2.1 Supply-side measures
Access to safe, clean and sustainable energy supplies is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity during the twenty-first century. This unit will survey the world’s present energy systems and their sustainability problems, together with some of the possible solutions to those problems and how these might emerge in practice.
Author(s): The Open University

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5.1.1 Linking supply and demand
Access to safe, clean and sustainable energy supplies is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity during the twenty-first century. This unit will survey the world’s present energy systems and their sustainability problems, together with some of the possible solutions to those problems and how these might emerge in practice.
Author(s): The Open University

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4.5 Sustainability of renewable energy sources
Access to safe, clean and sustainable energy supplies is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity during the twenty-first century. This unit will survey the world’s present energy systems and their sustainability problems, together with some of the possible solutions to those problems and how these might emerge in practice.
Author(s): The Open University

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4.1 What are renewable energy sources?
Access to safe, clean and sustainable energy supplies is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity during the twenty-first century. This unit will survey the world’s present energy systems and their sustainability problems, together with some of the possible solutions to those problems and how these might emerge in practice.
Author(s): The Open University

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1 The science of ecology
What is ecology and why is it important to our understanding of the world around us? This unit looks at how we can study ecosystems to explore the effect that humans are having on the environment.
Author(s): The Open University

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3.1 (2A): Exploring the global implications of different mindsets

In this activity the aim is to investigate the implications of different mindsets with regards to the future unfolding of events on a global scale.

Activity

So far, you have focused your attention on exploring your personal c
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2.5 Visual communication

As discussed in Reading 2.4, written text has major limitations in representing relationships between things when they do not follow the linear structure of the text. Relationships can be extremely complex, even circular, as you will see in this block. In particular, the linear sequence of text is not able to clearly show context, elements, structure, processes and functions of Author(s): No creator set

1.3 Activities

Activity 2A sets the scene by focusing on the ‘big picture’ where you will be asked to choose between four alternative visions of the future. This activity radically shifts the scale of investigation from the personal to the global. However, as with all Author(s): No creator set

1.2 Readings

In considering the environmental and social challenges that we are currently facing, we are clearly dealing with so-called ‘wicked’ problems: the ‘problems’ manifest themselves only as you try to engage and Author(s): No creator set

3.11 Summary

This topic has introduced the systems approach, which is the foundation of systems engineering. The systems approach consists of three elements.

  • A set of concepts that can be used to understand the structural and dynamic features of operations systems.

  • Methodologies for managing change. Two current methodologies have been presented: the hard systems approach can be applied in situations where there is a measure of agreement about the
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Stage 7: Implement changes

Finally, the agreed changes are implemented.

Like the hard systems approach, soft systems methodology is not seen as a ‘one pass’ procedure, but as a learning process. Iteration is a feature of the methodology's application. Learning is achieved in both approaches by the use of models, although soft systems has subsequently been enhanced to include a specific analysis of the culture and politics of the problem situation, as shown in Author(s): No creator set

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