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1 Understanding operations management

Consider the ingredients of your breakfast this morning. Unless you live on a farm and produced them yourself, they passed through a number of different processing steps between the farmer and your table and were handled by several different organisations. Similarly, your morning newspaper was created and delivered to you through the interactions of a number of different organisations.

Every day, you use a multitude of physical objects and a variety of services. Most of the physical obj
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3 Unit summary

This unit should have given you some idea of the issues surrounding the concept of innovation, in particular the key concepts of invention and innovation, and the negative as well as the positive effects that innovations can bring. Although the business functions have been recognised in passing, you should be able to see how the functioning of an organisation can be affected by innovation. Remember that although innovation can take place within any one function of the organisation, this can
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Open Online Courses in Colombia: Report of an educational and technological experiment
Presentation delivered at the Open Education Conference 2010, in Barcelona.
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7.6 Who should estimate?

The person managing the project is not necessarily the best one to prepare the estimates, although they should be closely involved, both as a source of information and because they need a clear understanding of what the estimates mean and what the estimators assume about outputs, inputs and the transformation process. If there are others who have more experience or more knowledge about some of the areas of work, these people may be the best ones to make estimates for the project or parts of i
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Deploying Our Gifts for the Betterment of Humankind: What Would Dr. King Say about Us?
Woven into the fabric of MIT life, says MIT President Susan Hockfield, is the “perpetual striving to be ever better.” To this end, Hockfield has been laboring to create a “true culture of inclusion.” Hockfield now has a tool to aid her efforts: a report on MIT faculty race and diversity -- the result of 2 ½ year
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8.4 The organisation of the mitotic chromosome

In order to prepare the chromosome for mitosis, a process in which DNA molecules become physically separated, an additional stage of compaction occurs to reach the highest level. The processes involved in this final stage of compaction are not clearly understood, but can be represented diagrammatically as in Figure 43. The process probably involves the coiling together of scaffolds into the higher-order structure.


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Activity answers

Study Note: As outlined in the text I have not provided answers to all Activities. This is for two reasons:

  1. For some activities only you can devise the answer and any I gave would be distracting or unhelpful.

  2. For others in-text answers are given.

1 The Case Study materials

Click here  to access the case study materials.

8 Drawing up the implementation plan

Once the detailed planning and risk assessments have been carried out, you are ready to assemble your implementation plan. A typical implementation plan, including diagrams and charts where appropriate, will contain:

  • a description of the background to the project;

  • its goals and objectives in terms of intended outputs and/or outcomes;

  • the resource implications (budget, personnel – including any training requirements
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7.7 Planning for quality

Having considered estimating for time and for costs, the third dimension of projects – quality needs to be considered. The need to achieve a particular level of quality may mean that more time must be spent completing certain tasks or that more resources must be made available for a particular purpose. Once the time and cost estimates have been made, review them to ensure that this estimate will allow an outcome of the right quality.

Many organisations have corporate quality assurance
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7.5 Materials costs

There will be many categories of materials, supplies and consumables used in a project. Once again, the materials that are in constant use and easily and ‘freely’ available in an organisation might be overlooked in costing the project. For example, it is easy to assume that stationary will be available in much the same way as it is for day-to-day work. However, a project is a bounded activity, and if you are to understand the full cost of achieving the outcomes, you will need to know
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5.1.1 SMART objectives

When the objectives are identified, trying to ensure that each objective is SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timebound) is good practice or at least to have considered the extent to which these conditions could be met. As in all planning, this process is continuous and as new information becomes available and as the project progresses, changes will need to be made to aspects of the objectives and to the sequences of tasks that contribut
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5.1 Introduction

One of the most difficult aspects of planning a project is estimating how long it will take to complete each key stage. An estimate might be based on:

  • the size of the tasks and the effort required to complete them;

  • the number of days that are not available for working on the project;

  • historical data from other projects, including the experience of colleagues.

Where a project has a fixed end-date (for
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4.3 Industrial dynamics: knowledge and network industries

This final subsection introduces two more concepts that develop further our analysis of the dynamics of industrial structure, with particular reference to the ‘new economy’ industries. A dynamic approach to industrial change places considerable emphasis on innovation and learning, seeing firms as actively searching out innovative products and processes and learning how to produce and sell them. Some of the novelty of the new economy is reflected in the concepts used in trying to unde
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4.2.1 Figure 9a: A selection of 35 mm SLR film cameras

Figure 9a
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4.1 Introduction

This section will explore the interaction of technology and costs with market demand in shaping industrial structure throughout the industry life cycle. Many industries begin as a numerous and turbulent group of firms jostling for position, experimenting with new and idiosyncratic products, and turn into a much smaller, more stable number of firms, making standardised products by routine methods. In this section we add a rather different view of firms to that developed in Author(s): No creator set

6.4 After the school experience review
Mentoring, observation and interviews are three important strategies in developing student teachers. This unit, which gives a flavour of the Open University's flexible PGCE course, introduces student–teacher centred strategies both inside and outside of the classroom involving mentors, pupils, tutors and others to develop student teachers' professional skills and understanding.
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6.3 During the school experience review
Mentoring, observation and interviews are three important strategies in developing student teachers. This unit, which gives a flavour of the Open University's flexible PGCE course, introduces student–teacher centred strategies both inside and outside of the classroom involving mentors, pupils, tutors and others to develop student teachers' professional skills and understanding.
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6.2 Before the school experience review
Mentoring, observation and interviews are three important strategies in developing student teachers. This unit, which gives a flavour of the Open University's flexible PGCE course, introduces student–teacher centred strategies both inside and outside of the classroom involving mentors, pupils, tutors and others to develop student teachers' professional skills and understanding.
Author(s): The Open University

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6.1 Introduction
Mentoring, observation and interviews are three important strategies in developing student teachers. This unit, which gives a flavour of the Open University's flexible PGCE course, introduces student–teacher centred strategies both inside and outside of the classroom involving mentors, pupils, tutors and others to develop student teachers' professional skills and understanding.
Author(s): The Open University

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