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2.3.2 The crater Pwyll

You might also have noted that there are no obvious impact craters visible in Figure 16 (see Section 2.3.1). In fact there are a few. One is a bright spot, 15 km in diameter, surrounded by a dark halo of ejecta that occurs 10 mm from the top edge and 65 mm from the left-hand edge of the figure. Another is a s
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2.2 Ice and salt

As noted in Section 1.5, Europa's near-infrared reflectance spectrum was used as long ago as the 1950s to demonstrate that its surface is mostly water-ice. More recently, spectroscopic observations by the Hubble Space Telescope and Galileo have revealed some regions where the ice appears to be salty (see below) and ha
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1.4 The discovery of tidal heating

The Voyager fly-bys of the Jupiter system convinced planetary scientists that former preconceptions about ‘dead’ globes were wrong – even before Voyager 1 had got as far as Saturn, the mission had enabled them to identify a new heating mechanism to explain the discrepancies. The ease with which this revolution in thought was brought about was thanks to some of the Voyager images of Io, Jupiter's innermost Galilean satellite. Io is only a fraction larger and denser than the Moon, and so
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1.3 Unravelling the natures of the large satellites

Before the dawn of the space age, relatively little could be discovered about even the large satellites. Their orbits were well known, and from the subtle orbital perturbations caused by neighbouring satellites it was possible to deduce their masses. Measurements of their sizes enabled densities to be calculated to within about 20 per cent of the currently accepted values for the Galilean satellites, and with rather less certainty for the large satellites of the other giant planets. However,
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1.2 Satellite systems and their origins

The satellite systems of the giant planets have several features in common. Most satellites are in synchronous rotation, always keeping the same face towards their planet. Irregularly shaped moonlets associated with the ring system orbit closest to the planet. They travel in near-circular prograde orbits in the planet's equatorial plane. (‘Prograde’ in this sense means orbiting in the same direction as the planet's spin.) These moonlets (like the rings) are believed to be fragments of lar
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1.1 Satellite discoveries

Figure 1
Figure 1 Galileo Galilei, 1564–1642.(© Science Photo Library)
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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

T
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6 Reflections

DA opens the TV programme by stating that ‘monkeys and apes have the richest social life of all mammals’. I have explored the importance of colour vision in the interactions between individuals and discussed how gestural and vocal communication add considerably to this richness. But ultimately, it is their ability to be innovative, to discover new ways of obtaining foods, to learn from one another (so-called cultural learning), to form friendships, alliances and coalitions between individ
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3.5 Communication

Compared with many other mammals, primates have a rich repertoire of communication skills, which I'll be looking at in more detail in this section.

Activity 4

Identify the instances of communication that you have observed in the T
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1 The anthropoids

As you work through this unit you will come across boxes, like this one, which give you advice about the study skills that you will be developing as you progress through the unit. To avoid breaking up the flow of the text, they will usually appear at the start or end of the sections.

In this unit you'
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Introduction

In this unit we will focus on the Anthropoidea, a suborder of primates that includes monkeys, apes and humans. We will concentrate our attention here primarily on monkeys. Colour vision, a large brain and intelligence are of great importance in the lives of anthropoids, enabling them to eat foods inaccessible to many other animals and to exploit social situations. In this unit, we will be looking at characteristics of primates that differ, or are enhanced, in anthropoids and discussing these
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4 Germline gene therapy

Now that in vitro fertilization – bringing eggs and sperm together outside the prospective mother's body – is an established technology, the possibility exists that genes could be altered in eggs or sperm, or in a very early embryo. The obvious advantages of germline gene therapy are that the cells are accessible (because they are outside the body), so gene delivery is less of a problem than it tends to be with somatic cells; and the inserted gene (or genes) would be present
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should understand:

  • some of the types of disease that might be treatable by gene therapy

  • the basic principals of genetic manipulation

  • the differences between somatic and germline gene therapy and some of the problems involved in these potential treatments

  • how genetics may be used in the design of drugs.


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Introduction

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Human genetics and health issues (SK195)

Following on from the advances made in diagnosing disorders using genetic testing, this unit looks at the possibilities for genetic therapies. Two approaches to gene therapy are discussed: correcting genes involved in causing illness; and using genes to treat disorders. Before
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Acknowledgements

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6 Promoting science promotion: the move from deficit to dialogue

This unit has tried to distinguish between institutional science outreach events and independent alternatives by recognising some of their characteristics and evaluating the extent to which they fulfil (and even create) a political mandate for PEST (Public Engagement in Science and Technology). Although institutional events sometimes involve the deficit style of ‘top-down’ transmission of facts, the examples provided in this unit suggest that they are increasingly imaginative and unusual.
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5 Public learning agendas

So far, this unit has argued that public engagement with science can be through both institutionalised events and independent contributions – hopefully, something for everyone. But to what extent will this be a consistent move towards dialogue and understanding, as requested by the UK and EU policies mentioned in Section 2?

Reading 2 suggests a move towards genuine interaction is possible if there is enough political motivation to enhance community learning of science and technology
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2.4 ‘Go Use’ science promotion events

Science shops, created in the Netherlands in the 1960s and now spread throughout Europe, first emerged in the UK in 1988 (at Queen's University, Belfast). They act as a demand-driven link between a university or independent research facility and the community (usually via citizen groups, such as pressure groups, social groups, consumers and residents associations), putting one in touch with the other upon request. They carry out scientific research on practical, scientific problems at the loc
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2.2 ‘Go See’ science promotion events

Every year, the BA (British Association for the Advancement of Science) runs a week-long Festival of Science in a different town or city, claiming it to be the largest public celebration of science in the country. The events are diverse in topic and character. The 2004 Festival in Exeter, for example, included a Presidential lecture on the responsibility of scientists, an exhibition on climate change, and an excursion to a nearby car park to test geometry by chalking lines on the ground. Fest
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1.2 Defining science promotion

A basic definition of science promotion would be useful here: in the context of this unit it means putting forward the benefits of science by motivating and engaging non-scientists. You may be aware of the sociological argument that science is open to social influences and constraints, and it is worth bearing this in mind when thinking about whether the benefits of science are necessarily the same for everyone. Likewise, you will need to remember that the public is not a homogeneous mass with
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