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1.3 Framing nature matters as systems

Much of what is considered Nature is often codified as ‘systems’ – natural systems, ecosystems, ecological systems and/or environmental systems. Systems thinking is an active cognitive endeavour to conceptually frame reality. A key feature of framing Nature in terms of systems is the appreciation given to the multiple interrelationships and interdependencies that exist in the natural world.

The Thing – that is, the repercussions of the eighteenth-century European industri
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Try some yourself

1 Without using your calculator solve the following calculations.

  • (a) 3 + 5 × 2 = ?

  • (b) 12 − 6 + 6 = ?

  • (c) 6 + (5 + 4) × 3 = ?

  • (
    Author(s): The Open University

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Excel nivel 2 (2010)

Con la evolución de las tecnologías, el ordenador personal y las aplicaciones ofimáticas se han convertido en herramientas de trabajo de uso cotidiano. Tareas que antiguamente se realizaban con calculadora, ahora requieren del uso de ordenadores y aplicaciones ofimáticas para su realización. En este campo han surgido aplicaciones para la gestión hojas de cálculo como Microsoft Excel y su uso es cada vez más requerido por los distintos responsables de la universidad, que a su vez dema
Author(s): Busquets Mataix, Jaime Luis

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The DPS protein compacts the eubacterial chromosome during stress

When an E. coli cell enters into stationary phase, transcription and cell division cease completely. In such cells, the normal chromatin components, such as those described above, are replaced by a negatively charged protein called DPS. The interaction between DPS and DNA appears to be a specialised bacterial adaptation to survive starvation. In normal conditions of growth, the DNA within the bacterial cell is distributed evenly throughout the entire cytoplasm. In stationary cells, how
Author(s): The Open University

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3.2.3. Regulation and codes of conduct

Chapter 1 of the Set Book presents a case for effective information security based largely upon perceived threats and legal obligations. Chapter 2 introduces further imperatives, which govern specific types of organisation in the UK.

Activity 6


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1.5 Some useful terminology and a convention

It will be useful to end this section by establishing a simple convention and introducing some terminology.

The convention has already been at work in this chapter, but has yet to be made explicit. It is a convention for marking the difference between using a word and mentioning it. Italy has a capital city, and the English language contains a word for that city, but the word and the city are distinct entities. When we are talking about the word rather than what the word i
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7.7 Neurogenesis

Brains contain within them the seeds of their own salvation and the seeds of their own destruction. In its early stages, the brain produces vast numbers of neuroblasts as stem cells divide at a huge rate, churning out millions of potential neurons. By birth in humans, this process of neuronal proliferation has virtually stopped. There are, however, some localised areas of the brain, in the olfactory lobe and the hippocampus, for example, where neuronal stem cells survive well into adulthood.
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1.7 Homologies

If homologies could be recognised as such, then the relationships between species could be inferred from their shared homologies. Unfortunately, however, homologies and analogies cannot always be unambiguously distinguished in practice. The risk of confusion is especially great when closely related species are compared, because similarities in their morphology and ecology make the parallel evolution of analogous features in separate lineages quite likely. As with other statements concerning h
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2.1 Institutional science promotion events

Nowadays, engaging with science through an institutional science promotion event can be quite straightforward. You can find out about such events by, for example, reading posters in your local library, watching a science documentary on TV or browsing the internet. The range of such outreach events is remarkable – from long-standing mainstream programmes such as the Royal Society Christmas lectures on TV and the annual BA (British Association for the Advancement of Science) Science Week, to
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3.1 Introduction

We each begin life with a unique genome. As we grow and develop, we are each subjected to a range of factors that influence the way development proceeds. Most of those factors are common to us all, the intracellular and intercellular signals, hormones, birth, milk. But the precise combination and the range and duration of those factors varies between individuals, such as the duration of gestation or the composition and quantity of a mother's milk, for example. In addition we each undergo diff
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2.11 Further exercises

Exercise 28

Let z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = 1 − 4i. Find z1 + z2, z1z2, z1<
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Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Promo - One Minute Romanian
Hello! My name is Roxana and I'd like to welcome you to One Minute Romanian from the Radio Lingua Network. In this podcast I'm going to be teaching you the basics of Romanian. The great thing about this language course is that you'll be learning all you need to know in just 60 seconds - or thereabouts! Each one minute language lesson will equip you with just enough Romanian to help you get by in lots of situations, either on holiday, or on a business trip to Romania, or just to impress your Roma
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2.4.2 Saltmarshes

Marsh plant primary production is generally nitrogen limited, so saltmarsh vegetation responds readily to the artificial eutrophication that is now so common in nearshore waters. Eutrophication causes marked changes in plant communities in saltmarshes, just as it does in freshwater aquatic and terrestrial systems. Biomass production increases markedly as levels of eutrophication increase. Increases in the nitrogen content of plants cause dramatic changes in populations of marsh plant consumer
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Tutoria. Interview with John Abbott (excerpt)

Durada: 5 min. Vídeo. Departament d'Ensenyament (Generalitat de Catalunya).
Interview with John Abbott, educator and author of "Battling for the Soul of Education". Rethinking Education according to 21st Century Learning. text complet

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Operating Systems
Operating Systems - UNSPECIFIED Keywords:Operating Systems
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A look at the effects of drugs on marine life
This week in the Planet Earth Podcast: Alex Ford and Stephen Short of the University of Portsmouth explain why we need to understand the effects of contraceptives, anti-depressants and other prescription drugs on marine organisms to protect our environment.
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"The Fifteen-Woman Lawsuit Opposing the Self-Defense Forces in Iraq"
japan protest posterA talk by lawyer Michiko Nakajima. In the course of the Iraq War, citizens in Japan, singly or in groups, have been taking the state to court alleging violation of the "no war" clause of the Constitution in deploying Self-Defense Force troops. Feminist labor lawyer Michiko Nakajima led a group of 15 women plaintiffs in one such suit. This
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"U.S.-Cuban Academic Relations Part I: The Politics of U.S.-Cuban Exchanges"
conference posterWayne Smith, Center for International Policy and Louis Pérez, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.
U.S. and Cuban scholars involved in academic, scientific, and cultural research face significant difficulties in maintaining open and thorough dialogue with each other due to restrictions governing travel between the two countries. Such

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2.4.2 Holism and ideas about the body

Reductionist medical approaches have been criticised for providing a fixed, mechanistic view of the body, which fails to capture the patient's experience. The power associated with biomedical diagnoses and expertise means that patients’ explanations for their illnesses are often overlooked or dismissed. Does holism, which seeks to treat the mind, body and spirit, fare any better in giving patients a sense of control or ownership of what their illness means? This question is often reframed i
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4.6 Greyscale

If this seems inadequate – it does seem rather an impoverished range of shades – all we need to do is allocate more bits. Three bits per pixel will give us eight shades, from black to white; four bits per pixel gives us 16 shades; and so on. This mapping of shades of grey between black and white in a black and white bitmap is known as greyscale. The range of numbers to which a pixel can be mapped is termed the pixel amplitude.

Let's try a simple ex
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