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4.3.2 Setting goals and objectives
Are you always the quiet one when it comes to group discussion? This unit will help you improve your working relationships with other people in groups of three or more. This unit also deals with project life cycles, project management and the role of the leader.
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4.1 Types of projects
Are you always the quiet one when it comes to group discussion? This unit will help you improve your working relationships with other people in groups of three or more. This unit also deals with project life cycles, project management and the role of the leader.
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3.2.2 Group size
Are you always the quiet one when it comes to group discussion? This unit will help you improve your working relationships with other people in groups of three or more. This unit also deals with project life cycles, project management and the role of the leader.
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2.8 Why do (only some) teams succeed?
Are you always the quiet one when it comes to group discussion? This unit will help you improve your working relationships with other people in groups of three or more. This unit also deals with project life cycles, project management and the role of the leader.
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2.3.4 The contract team
Are you always the quiet one when it comes to group discussion? This unit will help you improve your working relationships with other people in groups of three or more. This unit also deals with project life cycles, project management and the role of the leader.
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5.3 The systems engineering methodology used in the course

The aim of systems engineering is to achieve a solution that is effective and sustainable through its life cycle, together with the associated processes and facilities needed to realise the system and introduce it into the real world. Therefore it is important that systems engineering is itself conducted in full consideration of the following five systems:

  • the technology development system that provides new or modified technology for the other systems
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3.10 Systems techniques

The two systems methodologies provide a framework for the application of problem solving, analysis and design techniques. These fall into three groups.

  • Diagramming: ranging from single systems maps to complex flow charts. Diagrams of one sort or another provide a method of analysis, design and communication.

  • Modelling: simulation is used extensively to analyse the dynamics of an existing system and to predict the behaviour of a propos
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Stage 7: Implement changes

Finally, the agreed changes are implemented.

Like the hard systems approach, soft systems methodology is not seen as a ‘one pass’ procedure, but as a learning process. Iteration is a feature of the methodology's application. Learning is achieved in both approaches by the use of models, although soft systems has subsequently been enhanced to include a specific analysis of the culture and politics of the problem situation, as shown in Author(s): No creator set

Stage 6: Debate on feasible and desirable changes

The comparison undertaken in the previous stage can have two results.

  • It can cause opinions to change on the problem situation and the issues arising from it.

  • It can provide an agenda for change.

In either case (though both may result), the objective of this stage is to debate, with all concerned, the changes proposed to ensure that they are both desirable and feasible. The aim is to arrive at consensus about the prop
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Stage 3: Relevant systems and root definitions

The issues and key tasks extracted from the rich picture become the basis for defining what are called the ‘relevant systems’. For example, suppose the problem situation is a deteriorating performance in a call centre. One of the issues might be the (high) turnover of call centre operators. This might lead (depending on the point of view taken) to an idea of the call centre as an ‘employment-providing system’ or an ‘entertainment system’. There is no reason to restr
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • critically evaluate disasters and their causes, especially from mechanical or material failures;

  • demonstrate the importance of systematic and rigorous analysis of disasters, so that future failures can be avoided or prevented.

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

Prepared for the Course Team by Simon Buckingham Shum

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The Big Bang and the Creation of Earth
This 1:17 long video does a short review of what happened to create the  Big Bang and the events that followed. Good graphics and narration.
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4.13.1 Standards and classification

ICTs depend on myriad standards in order to provide interconnectivity. If this was a computer science course, you would be learning about standard network protocols which enable computers to communicate with each other or with other devices, whether over the internet or from your computer to a network printer. Standards enable us to send email and browse websites without worrying about the underlying mechanisms (until they fail, forcing us to focus on the tool instead of our work).


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4.13 Technologies and explicit knowledge

Knowledge-based systems have the ability to analyse specific kinds of information in order to take action. Since we have earlier defined knowledge as arising out of the interpretation of information as mediated by representations, we can claim that in a limited sense such systems can ‘know’ things: they have a representation of part of the world, and they have some rules that allow them to analyse that representation, from which they can decide on a course of action. In that sense, t
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4.7 Technologies and the tacit dimension continued

Box 4.5 Technology briefing: audiovisual Webcasting

The emergence of the internet and private, higher-capacity corporate intranets makes it possible to ‘broadcast’ over digital networks, saving time and money since staff do not have to physically gather in one location. The term webcastin
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2.3 Codification and formalisation

Much of the knowledge management literature argues the importance of making tacit knowledge explicit, and then codified. For instance, an explicit goal when auditing intellectual capital is to identify human capital as one of the key assets that give an organisation its true value. Some organisations are realising that a large quantity of their ‘assets’ leave the office for home each evening, perhaps never to return, and as a consequence want to capture these in a less vulnerable for
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1.4 Aims

The aims of this unit are:

  • to develop an understanding of the relationships between information, interpretation, knowledge and computer-based representations

  • to summarise the range of different technologies that are available and on the horizon, and how they relate to different kinds of knowledge processes

  • to provide frameworks for thinking about technologies for managing knowledge, and for evaluating the claims made
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1.3 Scope of this unit

ICT technical developments are announced on almost a monthly basis, so this unit cannot provide an up-to-the-minute snapshot of knowledge management technologies. While we describe many examples of relevant technologies, it is important not to let these particular examples constrain how you think about the possibilities; they are simply examples of commercial products and point to emerging technologies in research laboratories.

Our emphasis, therefore, is on providing conceptual framewo
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the following issues, explaining in your own words, with appropriate examples:

  • the importance of representation, interpretation and formalisation in relation to ICT and managing knowledge;

  • the concept of a ‘community of practice’ in relation to ICT;

  • the main functions that ICT can play in helping to manage knowledge;

  • the potential, an
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