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Glucose Fuel Cells: Brain-Implantable Electronic Devices that Run Like the Brain

"Glucose Fuel Cells: Brain-Implantable Electronic Devices that Run Like the Brain": Video component of the Application for the 2012-2013 Lemelson-MIT Student Prize, by Benjamin I. Rapoport.

 

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Managing coastal environments
Coastal environments are by their nature ever-changing. This unit looks at the example of the Blackwater Estuary in Essex, England, describing how the current state of the estuary came to be. It examines the contests and conflicts that centre on the estuary in terms of managing the environment for human needs and the needs of the other species who make their habitat there.Author(s): Creator not set

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3 Reading activity

You will shortly be asked to read through a research paper published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, in which the synthesis and structure–activity relationships of doxazosin and related compounds are described. It has been provided:
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2.7 Inferring relationships of common ancestry

Activity 6

0 hours 10 minutes

This clip addresses the question of how one might go about building a tree, or inferring relationships of common ancestry, by recognising evolutionary novelties, or share
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2.5 What does relationship mean in systematics? W. Hennig

Activity 4

0 hours 5 minutes

In this clip, Dr. Patterson introduces his third systematist, a German entomologist named Willi Hennig. This offers a third meaning of ‘relationship’, which is illustr
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1.1 Introduction

To the lay person, it might seem surprising that there is any problem with the recognition of higher taxa. The very existence of long-established vernacular names for inclusive groupings of species (e.g. finches, thrushes, parrots and hawks as distinct groups of birds) suggests that higher taxa are self-evident. Accordingly, the task of the taxonomist might seem merely to consist of recognising these groupings and assembling them in a hierarchy of increasingly inclusive categories.

Inde
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Introduction

This unit is from our archive. It is an adapted extract from the Science (S365) module that is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this Curriculum Area

This unit is concerned with macroevo
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4.2 Intermediate forms

In essence, the argument about intermediate forms runs as follows. If whales evolved from a terrestrial ancestor through the accumulation of small differences over time, we should expect to find the fossils of a number of ‘missing links’, i.e. creatures with a mixture of terrestrial and aquatic characteristics. In fact, we might expect to find a succession of such animals, each a little bit more whale-like and a little bit less well adapted to life on land than its predecessor.

To m
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2.2 Breathing air

A swimming elephant can breathe by holding the end of its trunk out of the water, but if it tried to find its food under the surface, like the desman, it would have to hold its breath. Neither the mammalian lung nor the skin can extract enough oxygen from water to sustain life, so aquatic mammals must come to the surface at intervals to breathe; and all of them – pinnipeds, sirenians and cetaceans – drown if they are prevented from doing so for prolonged periods.

Lungs form 7% of th
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6.3 Valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory

The theory of molecular shape that we have been working towards is called valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory (VSEPR theory). When applied to molecules and ions of the typical elements, its success rate is high. Here is a stepwise procedure that you can follow when applying this theory. It is illustrated with the molecule XeF4 and the ion C1O3. Xenon tetrafluoride is one of the select band of noble gas compounds that were unknown before 1962
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6.1 Introduction

Structural formulae of, for example, hexan-1-ol (Structure 6.1) and PF5 (Structure 5.13) merely tell us the immediate neighbours of any particular atom. They are two-dimensional drawings, which ignore the three-dimensional shapes of the molecules. But in studying the structures obtained by X-ray crystallography in Sectio
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5.2 Summary of Section 5

  1. The structural formulae of organic molecules can be divided into the carbon-hydrogen framework or skeleton, and the functional group(s). In the first approximation, the functional groups are the sites where reaction occurs, the framework remaining unreactive.

  2. This approximation works best when the framework consists of saturated carbon atoms.

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3.4 Outer electronic configurations and the Periodic Table

The essential message of Figure 22 is that the Groups of elements that appear in columns of the Periodic Table usually have atoms with similar outer electronic configurations. Figure 23 incorporates these configurations into our mini-Periodic Table of typical elements; they appear at the top of each Group. They imply that the typi
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3.3 Electronic configurations and the Periodic Table

Figure 21 has been designed for use in a particular thought experiment. The purpose of the thought experiment is to see how the electronic configuration of the atoms changes as one moves through the Periodic Table from beginning to end. We start with the hydrogen atom, which has one proton and one electron. Then we
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3.2 The electronic configurations of atoms

The quantum theory of the atom tells us that we cannot say exactly where an electron in an atom will be at any particular moment; we can speak only of the probability of finding an electron at a particular point. So the precise orbits shown in the Rutherford model of Figure 1 misrepresent the arrangement of electrons about
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6.2 Specific difficulties

Some students contend with physical difficulties in reading. Here is one:

And here is another being offered advice by a friend:

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2.12 How likely are particular results?

In real experiments, as opposed to hypothetical ones, it is very rare that scientists make a sufficiently large number of measurements to obtain a smooth continuous distribution like that shown in Figure 7d. However, it is often convenient to assume a particular mathematical form for typically distributed measurements, and the form that is usually
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2.11 Using a calculator for statistical calculations

Table 3 shows all the values for each step in the process of calculating a standard deviation, so that you can see what the operations encapsulated by Equation 7 actually entail, but you will probably be relieved to hear that it is not usually necessary to carry out such detailed calculations. Scientific and graphics calculators (or computer sp
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2.8 Descriptive statistics

Scientists collect many different types of information, but sets of data may be very loosely classified into two different types. In the first type, so-called ‘repeated measurement’, an individual quantity is measured a number of times. An astronomer wanting to determine the light output of a star would take many measurements on a number of different nights to even out the effects of the various possible fluctuations in the atmosphere that are a cause of stars ‘twinkling’. In the seco
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2.6 Combining probabilities

The probabilities described in Section 2.3 and Section 2.4 related to the outcomes of a single process, such as repeatedly tossing one coin. Now suppose you were to toss three separate coins simultaneously. What is the prob
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