セミナー/講演会「学部移行ガイダンス」の映像がiTunes Store Podcastに登録さ
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How we came to be at MIT/MSRP Orientation
June 6, 2011 - The MIT Summer Research Program (http://web.mit.edu/msrp/) brings talented undergraduate interns to MIT's campus. In this 2011 orientation session, six current graduate students give advice and answer questions regarding MIT and graduate community, as well as academia in general and occupational work. Panelists: Zinzile Brooks, Obioma Ohia, Daniel Soltero, Maria Telleria, David Hill.
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Clean Energy Innovation Reception
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3.4 Summary of Part B

In Part B we have examined:

  • the different types of Parliamentary Bills:

    • Public Bills

    • Private Bills

    • Private Members' Bills

  • how Bills are prepared and drafted

  • how Bills become Acts of Parliament.

2.5 (i) Party manifestos

When there is a general election most of the political parties publish a list of the reforms they would carry out if they were elected as the next Government. This is called the party's manifesto. Acts of Parliament may derive from the party manifesto on which the Government is elected. Below is an example of a party manifesto for the fictitious ‘Progressive Political Party’:

You may have s
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Law making in the House of Commons and House of Lords

One of the main functions of both Houses of Parliament is to discuss, debate and pass new laws. Laws made by Parliament are called Acts of Parliament. Acts of Parliament are also known as statutes or legislation. These terms all mean the same thing and will be used interchangeably throughout this unit.

Acts of Parliament may originate in various ways:

  1. party manifestos

  2. national emergency, crisis or new development


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6.2 The limits of legislative competence

Before devolution, all Bills affecting Scotland were introduced in, and subject to the procedures of, the UK Parliament. Some of those Bills were limited in extent to Scotland, while others applied to the whole of the United Kingdom (although often with some distinct provisions applicable only to Scotland). You can learn more about the procedures for the UK Parliament in Section 7 of this unit.

Section 28(1) of the Scotland Act
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6.2 Applying other people's rules

The process of interpretation is very closely related to that of application. The reason is simple – before applying a rule, the person applying it must interpret it to see whether the conduct in question is one to which the rule applies. Sometimes this will be straightforward, and sometimes not, as will be seen in Activity 7. The purpose of this activity is to provide you with an opportunity to explore the different ways in
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5.3 Summary of Part D

After studying Part D you should be able to:

  • explain the difficulties of interpreting written statements;

  • explain what is meant by indeterminacy;

  • explain what is meant by interpretive strategies;

  • describe the literal approach to interpretation;

  • describe the approach to interpretation which seeks to avoid absurdity;

  • describe the approach to interpretation which looks t
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5.2.3 Looking at the intention of the rule-maker

To resolve these problems, a rule-applier may adopt a yet broader interpretive strategy. This involves attempting to work out what the intention of the rule-maker was when the rule was formulated. In other words, it means going beyond or outside the language of the rule itself. In the context of a statute (i.e. an Act of Parliament), this may involve the rule-applier (the judge) looking at the law that existed before the statute was enacted and working out what the problem with that la
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5.2.2 Avoiding absurdity

One such strategy is to be as true to the literal meaning as is possible but to ensure, so far as the words allow, an interpretation which avoids absurdity. In the case of the rule I have just set out, this would mean an interpretation which ensured that only those customers who had caused breakages were obliged to pay for them.

This approach works well in most cases, but not always. Take, for example, another rule posted up in a shop selling china and glass:

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5.1 Introduction

We have seen some of the difficulties that Mrs Biggs has faced when formulating a sufficiently general and sufficiently specific rule to deal with the conduct of the visitors to her garden. In Part D we take things a step further by looking at some of the difficulties which may arise when it comes to interpreting rules such as the one developed (with your help) by Mrs Biggs. In particular, we will be exploring the way in which our understanding of the language used in rules affects our interp
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4.1 Introduction

We have looked at the way in which policy informs the development of rules, and you have had an opportunity to develop your reasoning skills by applying your understanding of a set of rules to some factual situations. One of the issues which came out of Part B was that sometimes in applying rules the language in which the rules are written makes it difficult to know exactly what is meant. In Part C we will be looking at this problem in a little more detail. In particular, we will be looking a
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4 Why do social workers need to know about the law?

From our discussion of social work and the meaning of law you will already have some answers to this question. We will now bring them together and relate them to wider debates about the content of the social work curriculum.

We have seen that there are few right answers in social work. However, if practitioners do not know where they stand legally they cannot begin to do their job properly because they will not be able to give appropriate advice and support to service users. They will a
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3.6 Accountability

We have discovered that legal rules and principles are often more flexible than first imagined, but they still set the boundaries of permissible action and create a framework for decision making to which social workers are accountable. We have also seen that accountability is essential if power is to be kept in check and some of the negative effects of discretion are to be avoided. Decisions must be transparent, and the process by which they are made must be fair, reasonable and within legal
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2.3 Social work and social change

The social work profession in Scotland is undergoing a period of significant change at the beginning of the twenty-first century. In a process which largely mirrors developments across the UK, new systems for the education and regulation of social workers have been introduced to improve standards in the provision of social services, to raise public confidence and protect service users. For the first time entrants to the profession are required to obtain an undergraduate degree in social work,
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2.1 First impressions

Newspaper headlines often project an image of social work under stress. Over the past two decades a number of events have raised serious questions about social work practice: there has been fierce debate in relation to child protection issues, over changes within the criminal justice system (for example the introduction of anti-social behaviour orders) and the effectiveness of community care. There have also been well-documented tragedies and errors of judgement, including recent inquiries in
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1 The importance of law in social work education

In this unit you will be asked to reflect on the meanings of both social work and law. You will find that these concepts are open to a range of possible definitions, and that the functions of social work and law can change depending on the practice context. Their meaning is also affected by the perspective from which they are viewed, for example the service user's experience of social work and law will not always match the expectations of the professional, or the perceptions of the general pu
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5 Conclusion
Social work is a dynamic profession that is undergoing a period of significant change in Scotland. Social workers have the power to make assessments and decisions that radically alter people's lives. This unit introduces the law as it relates to social work and encourages an understanding of the context of the law in order to make sound decisions.
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