NASA | DNA Building Blocks Can Be Made in Space
NASA-funded researchers have evidence that some building blocks of DNA, the molecule that carries the genetic instructions for life, found in meteorites were likely created in space. The research gives support to the theory that a "kit" of ready-made parts created in space and delivered to Earth by meteorite and comet impacts assisted the origin of life. (02:50)

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The Secret of the Machines by Rudyard Kipling (poetry reading)
We were taken from the ore-bed and the mine, We were melted in the furnace and the pit— We were cast and wrought and hammered to design, We were cut and filed and tooled and gauged to fit. Some water, coal, and oil is all we ask, And a thousandth of an inch to give us play: And now, if you will set us to our task, We will serve you four and twenty hours a day! We can pull and haul and push and lift and drive, We can print and plough and weave and heat and light, We can run a
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Defrag Tools: #17 - WinDbg - Driver Verifier - Part 2 | Defrag Tools

In this episode of Defrag Tools, Michael Fourre, senior test engineer from the Driver Verifier team, pays a visit to Larry Larsen and Chad Beeder in the Channel 9 studios to give us some deeper insight into this valuable tool for catching device driver bugs!

Resources:

Debugging Tools for Windows

Author(s): Larry Larsen, Andrew Richards, Chad Beeder

Newegg TV: How To Build a Computer - Part 1 - Choosing Your Components
How to build a PC from the ground up first by showing how to choose the parts. (24:33)
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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Author(s): The Open University

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5.4 The medical chemistry strategy

The strategy adopted was to start from first principles. Since prazosin is an alpha1 antagonist, it must compete with the agonist, noradrenaline, for the alpha1 receptor. So the Pfizer scientists decided to compare the structures of the two molecules and look for common structural features that might provide an insight into the way in which they bind to the receptor. One important observation was the fact that, at physiological pH, both compounds would be protonated, nor
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5.3 Project initiation

In the early 1970s a discovery was made independently by two different researchers, Klaus Starke in Germany and Salomon Langer in Argentina. Their results showed that there were two types of alpha receptor. The first type, which they called alpha1 is the one already described that is found on the blood vessel wall. The second type, which they called alpha2, is located on the nerve-ending itself. Noradrenaline binds to the alpha2 receptors when the alpha
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4 Summary of video

At the beginning of the video clip, Dr Simon Campbell pointed out that, in the development of any drug, there are a number of criteria that must be satisfied. There must be a clinical need – a medical condition or disease that requires effective treatment. Secondly, there has to be a commercial opportunity; because drug development is so expensive, pharmaceutical companies are less likely to invest resources in developing new therapeutic agents where there is already an adequate range of su
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3 Reading activity

You will shortly be asked to read through a research paper published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, in which the synthesis and structure–activity relationships of doxazosin and related compounds are described. It has been provided:
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2 Video activity

The video clip included in this section looks at the development of one particular drug. It examines the complex multidisciplinary process that was involved in its discovery. Before you watch the video, read through the Pre-viewing notes.


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1 The chemical industry

The chemical industry is one of the major contributors to the economies of advanced industrial nations.

The importance of organic chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry becomes apparent in the light of the fact that in the UK alone some £2.2b was spent in 1997 on research and development. Literally thousands of different compounds have to be synthesised and tested in the search for the one that will prove to be a successful and valuable therapeutic agent. As a result, the average cos
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Introduction

This unit examines how organic chemistry is used within the pharmaceutical industry to develop new drugs. You will investigate the process of drug development by following one new product through the intial process and research programme.

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Organic chemistry: A synthesis approach (S344) which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Author(s): The Open University

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2.14 Summing up

Activity 13

0 hours 5 minutes

Dr. Peterson concludes the audio sequence with a summary of all the points covered.

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2.11 Consequences of human / chimp pairing

Activity 10

0 hours 10 minutes

This clip refers back to the table of molecular characters, which is shown again here (Figure 9). It explains the consequences of human / chimp pairing in terms of homol
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2.9 Conflicting morphological characters

Activity 8

0 hours 10 minutes

This clip looks at conflicting morphological characters and at how it is possible to resolve them, with the aid of a table of molecular characters (Figure 9).

Dr
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2.7 Inferring relationships of common ancestry

Activity 6

0 hours 10 minutes

This clip addresses the question of how one might go about building a tree, or inferring relationships of common ancestry, by recognising evolutionary novelties, or share
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4.3 Metallic bonding

Two familiar properties of metals point to a simple model of metallic bonding. Firstly, metals have a strong tendency to form positive ions. Thus, when sodium reacts with water, and when magnesium and aluminium react with acids, hydrogen gas is evolved and the ions Na+(aq), Mg2+(aq) and Al3+(aq), respectively, are formed. Secondly, metals are good conductors of electricity: when a voltage difference is applied
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2.1 Chemical periodicity

The chemistry of the elements is immensely varied. But amidst that variety there are patterns, and the best known and most useful is chemical periodicity: if the elements are laid out in order of atomic number, similar elements occur at regular intervals.

The discovery of chemical periodicity is particularly associated with the nineteenth-century Russian chemist Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeléev (Figure 16). The periodicity is represented graphically by Periodic Tables. Author(s): The Open University

5.1 Arithmetic with real numbers

At the end of Section 1, we discussed the decimals and asked whether it is possible to add and multiply these numbers to obtain another real number. We now explain how this can be done using the Least Upper Bound Property of Author(s): The Open University

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