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A Thorn in the Side: A Socialist Takes Aim at Gompers
During the 1890s, the American Federation of Labor (AFL) was faced with both the rising popularity of the People's Party in rural areas and attempts by the Populist movement to create a farmer-labor alliance. At the same time, socialist trade unionists lobbied for greater political involvement and adoption of several key socialist positions by the AFL. One of those socialist trade unionists was J. Mahlon Barnes, a Philadelphia cigar maker, member of the Cigarmakers' International Union, and memb
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A Show of Support: Farmers Feed Homestead Strikers
In 1892 the possibility of a Labor-Populist alliance circulated. Populist orators like Mary Lease sought to build ties between the Farmer's Alliance and the labor movement by mobilizing farmers to send wheat and corn to striking workers at Carnegie's Homestead steel mill outside Pittsburgh. Despite the support for such an alliance among many in the labor movement, American Federation of Labor leader Samuel Gompers opposed such political action. Gompers insured that the A.F.L maintained, in his w
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"A Modern School": Abraham Flexner Outlines Progressive Education
In the early 20th century, an impressive array of intellectuals, social critics, and grassroots activists came together to launch a progressive education movement that sought broad-based change in American educational practice. At the heart of the progressive program lay a pedagogy that emphasized flexibility and critical thinking. This was coupled with the belief that schools should establish organic relationships with their communities, that curricula should confront broad social issues, and t
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"A Little Standing Army in Himself": N. A. Jennings Tells of the Texas Rangers, 1875
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 brought an enormous chunk of Mexico to the United States. This added to the territory obtained by the annexation of Texas in 1845, but more than just territory was added. More than 75,000 Spanish-speaking residents became U.S. citizens, but the struggle to achieve that citizenship was long and often unsuccessful. Mexican-Americans lost political power and civil liberties quickly in Texas. Justice was hard to secure and the ranching country of South Texas b
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"A Foreigner in My Own Land": Juan Nepomuceno Seguin Flees Texas, 1842
Few Anglos lived in San Antonio after the Texas Revolution of 1835-36 and Tejanos (Texas-Mexicans) continued their rule. Juan Nepomuceno Seguin was born into a prominent tejano family and had close ties with Stephen Austin, leader of the first American settlers in Texas. He became mayor or alcade at an early age and fought on the Anglo side with the coming of Texas' revolt against Mexico. However, his political situation increasingly became fragile because of the changing balance of power and An
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17.100J Political Economy I: Theories of the State and the Economy (MIT)
Political Economy I explores the major social science paradigms for analyzing relations among state, economy, and society. Through readings, lectures and discussion of original texts in political liberalism and individualism, neo-classical economics, Marxism, sociological and cultural theories, and neo-institutionalism, the seminar examines the fundamental assumptions on which our understanding of the social world and our research are based. All participants in the seminar are required to do the
Author(s): Piore, Michael,Berger, Suzanne

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

"A Heritage of Scorn": Harper Urges A Color-Blind Cause
The struggle for woman suffrage lasted almost a century, beginning with the 1848 Woman's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, New York, and including the 1890 union of two competing suffrage organizations to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). NAWSA and other organizations campaigned diligently for the vote in a variety of ways, but did not achieve success until the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. This prolonged struggle entangl
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A Craft Unionist Rewrites the Ten Commandments
The moral code of craft unionism was part of a larger system of late nineteenth-century working-class values that went well beyond behavior on the job. Moreover, those values drew upon other deeply held moral beliefs, particularly those growing out of religion. In "Labor's Decalogue," G. Edmonston, the first president of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, offered a new twist on the biblical Ten Commandments. Edmonston's novel set of "rules" for workers found its way into a variety
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Energy Balance Climate Model
Students explore a Global Energy Balance Climate Model Using Stella II. This Stella model focuses on global energy balance and creating a useful climate model. Students can explore how the model planetary surface and atmospheric temperatures respond to variations in solar input, atmospheric and surface albedo, atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide, volcanic eruptions, and mixed layer ocean depth. Climate feedbacks such as water vapor or ice-albedo can be turned on or off. The activity provi
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Earth's Radiation Budget: Part 1
In this activity students explore the Earth's radiation budget using Earth radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data archived at the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library. This archive is complete with visualization tools for easy assessment and visualization of large data sets. Students also use photometers and light sources to work through several hands-on activities related to basic radiation concepts. On this Starting Point page, users can access information about the exercise's learning goals, contex
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Daisyworld Stella Activity
Daisyworld model is a very simple planet that has only two species of life on its surface - white and black daisies, and bare ground. Daisyworld is a good example of homeostasis and was first proposed by James Lovelock as a plausible example of his Gaia hypothesis. The Daisyworld activity helps students build a Stella model of Daisyworld from scratch. After constructing the model they perform guided experiments to explore the behavior of Daisyworld to changes in model parameters and assumptions.
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Daisyworld Interactive Activity
Students use a JAVA interface design to explore the Daisy World model. The model is intended to illustrate a mechanism by which biota might optimize their abiotic environment by means of negative feedback. The model does not attempt to describe all of the possible mechanisms and feedbacks which might influence the ways in which the plants and climate develop. Instead, it is an heuristic model, that seeks to describe the ways in which this mechanism might work. The original model was developed by
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A German Way of War? Atrocities and Military Dictatorship
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Calibrated Peer Review: Petroleum Geology of the Persian Gulf Region
In this assignment, students explore the origin and distribution of oil and gas in a region of global significance. Also included are the geologic history and the socio-political and environmental issues associated with hydrocarbon exploration and production. Students then walk through an online case study and write an essay addressing important points that they have learned. The Calibrated Peer Review interface is then used to give feedback on the essays. On this Starting Point page, users can
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Calibrated Peer Review: Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean - Geologic History of A Large Igneo
This activity explores the significance and geologic history of the Kerguelen Plateau Large Igneous Province, as revealed by Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 120 and 183. After examining all the source material, the students write an essay addressing the important points that they have learned. The Calibrated Peer Review interface is then used to give feedback on the essays. On this Starting Point page, users can access information about the exercise's learning goals, context for use, teaching
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Calibrated Peer Review: Discovering Dinosaurs
In this activity, students write an essay on the history of scientific discoveries in the field of dinosaur paleontology. The essays are then evaluated via Calibrated Peer Review. On this Starting Point page, users can access information about the exercise's learning goals, context for use, teaching notes and tips, teaching materials, assessment ideas, references and topics covered.
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An Activity to Introduce the Geoscience Perspective
This exercise is intended to connect students to geology and to remind them of the diverse ways in which people, including geoscientists, relate to rocks. Groups of students are asked to examine rock samples from specific perspectives such as sculptors, landowners or geologists, and then present relevant observations and questions. Next, individuals write one-minute papers summarizing what they have learned and evaluating the activity. On this Starting Point page, users can access information ab
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Allosaur Survival Game
This online computer game deals with why allosaurs hunted as they did, as well as how. The student needs to balance the need for food for energy and growth with the risk of being savaged by one's potential prey or killed outright by another allosaur. The "Big Al" starts out as a 0.2 kg hatchling and ends up as a hunter of sauropods and a parent to the next generation of allosaurs. On this Starting Point page, users can access information about the exercise's learning goals, context for use, teac
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A Brief History of Evolutionary Genetics
This web article discusses the history of evolutionary genetics. The article highlights important contributors such as Sewall Wright and Dobzhansky as well as current ideas in evolutionary genetics. From this webpage, users can read and download the article and follow links to other useful websites.
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Christopher Lydon compilation tape
Christopher Lydon interviews Bill Lee (pitcher, Montreal Expos) at Fenway Park. Lee discusses the possibility of a baseball strike. Lee talks about unions and his feelings about baseball. Lee says that he is no longer 'addicted' to baseball. This compilation tape has three essays by Robert J. Lurtsema about the coming of summer, the coming of fall and barnacles. Lydon reports on the upcoming preliminary elections for the Boston City Council. Lydon analyzes voting patterns in various districts an
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