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2.5.6 Essay presentation

Both Philip and Hansa presented their essays neatly, with no crossings out or obvious slips of the pen or type. And they make very few spelling mistakes. Philip puts ‘wifes’ for wives, ‘citys’ for cities and ‘carreer’ for career, and Hansa ‘sparcity’ for sparsity.

Spelling

People of
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2.5.5 Writing style

As we have seen, Hansa tends to use whole clusters of words and constructions that are a bit over-formal rather than wrong. She seems to be trying to impress her reader. For example:

They therefore fled from the country in order to escape the restrictions and consequent boredom placed upon them by the very limited pastimes that a high ranking women in the eighteenth century was permitted to indulge.


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2.5.2 Punctuation

Some of the sentences we have looked at are harder to understand than they might be because they are not very well punctuated. Punctuation marks are the ‘stops’ in a sentence that divide it up into parts. They make it easier to follow the meaning of the words. For instance, it is easier to read this sentence of Philip's if we put a comma after ‘wealthy’:

With society becoming more wealthy, it was possible for t
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2.5.1 Sentences

We can see that Philip knows what a sentence is because he writes some perfectly good ones. For example:

In many ways going into urban life from the countryside was beneficial to woman of the upperclass.

This sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop. It has a subject (urban life) and a main verb (was). As any sentence is, it is a self-contained ‘unit of meaning’. It m
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2.5 Other aspects of writing

Now we will look at the way Philip and Hansa wrote and presented their essays. Did you find them both easy to read? As regards Philip's, my answer is, ‘yes and no’. It is sometimes easy because he has a fluent way with words. But it is often difficult because he does not use enough punctuation to help us make sense of his words, and because of certain mistakes he makes. I found Hansa's essay easier to read. Her writing is more technically correct and more assured than Philip's. But
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should:

  • be able to discuss why writing is so important;

  • have an understanding of and be able to use critically the main criteria of good essay-writing;

  • be aware of the basic technical and stylistic considerations involved in writing.


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1.3.5 Stage 3: Details

Now examine the piece in more detail. Read it again slowly making sure that you are able to follow its logic from sentence to sentence. Are there any obvious gaps in the argument or any unsubstantiated statements or assertions? Do you agree with its argument or are you attracted by its message? Is its appeal principally emotional or analytical, or both? Analyse the piece in terms of what it doesn't say as well as what it does, and look for its hidden message. What is the scope of the sample o
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Starting with psychology
The most ‘important and greatest puzzle’ we face as humans is ourselves (Boring, 1950, p. 56). Humans are a puzzle – one that is complex, subtle and multi-layered, and it gets even more complicated as we evolve over time and change in different contexts. When answering the question ‘What makes us who we are?’, psychologists put forward a range of explanations about why people feel, think and behave the way they do. Just when psychologists seem to understand one bit of ‘who we are’
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References

Ashworth, P. (2003) ‘An approach to phenomenological psychology: the contingencies of the lifeworld’, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 145–56.
Bordo, S. (1993) Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture and the Body, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.
Burkitt, I. (1999) Bodies of Thought: Embodiment, Identity and
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3.2 Consciousness of the body

Phenomenological theorists distinguish between the subjective body (as lived and experienced) and the objective body (as observed and scientifically investigated). These are not two different bodies as such (phenomenologists pride themselves on overcoming dualisms!); rather they are different facets of our experience and consciousness.

The body-subject, or subjective body, is the body-as-it-is-lived. I do not simply possess a body; I am my body (Merleau-Ponty, 1962
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4.3 Attending across modalities

The preceding section raised the issue of attention operating (and to some extent failing) across two sensory modalities. By focusing on distraction we ignored the fact that sight and sound (and other senses) often convey mutually supporting information. A classic example is lip-reading. Although few of us would claim any lip-reading skills, it turns out that, particularly in noisy surroundings, we supplement our hearing considerably by watching lip movements. If attention is concerned with u
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1.1 Introduction

To cover some of the concept of attention (we have only a unit, and there are whole books on the subject) I shall follow an approximately historical sequence, showing how generations of psychologists have tackled the issues and gradually refined and developed their theories. You will discover that initially there seemed to them to be only one role for attention, but that gradually it has been implicated in an ever-widening range of mental processes. As we work through the subject, two basic i
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3 Sharing the workload

The new terms of reference for the premises committee of one nursery school were clear. The committee would meet three times: in October, February and June. In October they would tour the school with the headteacher and agree what improvements could be made to the school environment. In February they would check how the work was progressing, identify the money that was to be available from the budget in April, and agree thei
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1.2.3 Legal requirements

The third factor is legal obligation. In many countries it is unlawful to discriminate against disabled people as employees, as students, and as consumers of goods and services. Legislation requires employers, education establishments, and providers of goods and services to make ‘reasonable adjustments’ to avoid discriminating against disabled people.

In practice this means that, where ‘reasonable’, websites, software, buildings and other entities involved in employment, educati
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References

Bush T. and Middlewood D. (1997) Managing People in Education, Paul Chapman, London, p. 172.
The Education (School Teacher Appraisal) (England) Regulations 2000
DfES/Ofsted 2005, A New Relationship with Schools: Next Steps.

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3.3 The purpose of the formal review meeting

The purpose of this meeting is to:

  • review performance against agreed objectives, and also in overall leadership of the school;

  • agree objectives for the next year;

  • set dates for in-year monitoring of progress.

A statement must be agreed between the headteacher and governors that covers all of these areas, and which may be seen by the appropriate committee of the governing body when they review the head
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3.2 Adviser time

The governing body is allowed up to eight hours of external adviser time. These are split roughly:

  • three hours for preparation before the meeting;

  • one hour for writing/checking the review statement;

  • four hours in school.

The time allows for both the headteacher and the appointed governors to meet the adviser separately to discuss issues and, in the case of the governors, to seek advice. To do this, th
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Learning outcomes

The aim of this unit is to:

  • raise awareness of the process and principles of performance management/appraisal in schools;

  • identify the negative aspects of appraisal systems and consider how these might be overcome;

  • enhance understanding of the role of the governing body in the performance review process, especially in relation to reviewing the headteacher's performance;

  • encourage discussion of performance with regard to pay awards, an
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1 What is monitoring?

Monitoring means gathering evidence to show what progress has been made towards strategic priorities and targets and the implementation of policies.

Evaluation means making judgements about the results.

DfES 2003, National Training Programme for New Governors, Module 2, p. 4.

Monitoring is a key aspect of governors' remit; it is necessary so that governing bodies can carry out their strat
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3 What does the data tell us?

Data never gives you the answers: it helps you to ask the questions.

(Hawker, 1998)

Realistically, what governors can glean from attainment data, without assistance from the professionals, either in school or through the Local Authority (LA), may be limited, depending on your experience of reading statistical information.

A single set of figures, relating to only one year's results, may n
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