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Introduction

This unit will introduce the notion of social citizenship in relation to rights and obligations within society, with particular reference to women and disabled people. The material is primarily an audio file, originally 23 minutes in length and recorded in 1998.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Social policy: Welfare power and diversity (D218) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to e
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Acknowledgements

This chapter is taken from Living Political Ideas (eds) Geoff Andrews and Micheal Saward published in association with Edinburgh University Press (2005) as part of a series of books which forms part of the course DD203 Power, Dissent, Equality: Understanding Contemporary Politics.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this cont
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Acknowledgements

Don't miss out:

1. Join over 200,000 students, currently studying with The Open University [http://www.open.ac.uk/ choose/ ou/ open-content]

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4 What is a ‘nation’?

Guibernau (1996, p. 47) has defined the nation as: ‘a human group conscious of forming a community, sharing a common culture, attached to a clearly demarcated territory, having a common past and a common project for the future and claiming the right to rule itself’. So awareness, territory, history and culture, language and religion all matter. However, it is rare in the real world to find a case of a nation with a clear-cut and homogenous character in terms of this list of possibilities.
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3.1 Competing explanations of social problems

If we can agree that poverty is a social problem, we are led to another question: what sort of social problem is it? For some, it is a social problem because people should not be poor: it involves social injustice. For others, poverty is a social problem because poor people behave badly (or bring up children poorly): it involves social disorder. We therefore have another parting of the ways, with some believing that social justice requires poor people to become less poor, and others believing
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Computer technology: robotic milking and interactive mirrors
What have computers got to do with cows? Can a wooden mirror help us understand the computing behind digital image capture? Neil Rowse is the first dairy farmer in the UK to use a computerised system that gives cows control over when they are milked, and allows him to remotely monitor the welfare of individual animals. Daniel Rozin has created an computer operated mirror made from 835 tilting wooden tiles. With the help of a digital camera and a computer programme, the wooden tiles mimic the di
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2.1 Numbers

The supermarket example discussed in Section 1 involves various forms of data that a computer may need to handle. Some of these, such as numbers and characters, are simple but fundamental. Other forms of data, such as sequences, involve more complicated structure. In this section, we will introduce sets, which are a variety of data collection that is different from sequences. But first we will look more carefully at numbers and characters.

When developing software we need to dist
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • evaluate technical descriptions of communication protocols and demonstrate your understanding of their operation;

  • describe the characteristics of circuit-switched and packet-switched networks, and of connectionless and connection-oriented modes in packet-switched networks;

  • describe the role played by primitives in the OSI reference model;

  • explain how ‘vertical’ and ‘horizontal’
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2.2.1 Positive integers: denary numbers

The number system which we all use in everyday life is called the denary representation, or sometimes the decimal representation, of numbers. In this system, the ten digits 0 to 9 are used, either singly or in ordered groups. The important point for you to grasp is that when the digits are used in ordered groups, each digit is understood to have a weighting. For example, consider the denary number 549. Here 5 has the weighting of hundreds, 4 has the weighting of tens and
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17.3 The network

The network conveys the data on items purchased through to the database server. It also conveys data such as revised prices and special offers from the database server back to the checkout terminal. In both cases this may involve selecting an appropriate route through the network and manipulating, storing or retrieving data.


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2.1 Introduction

There are many types of system – not just ICT systems. For example, we all have a nervous system and, as you are studying T175, you are in a higher education system. Our homes have plumbing systems and electrical systems.

Activity 1 (exploratory)

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5.2 Usability principles

Usability as a field of study has grown rapidly with the spread of computers, the Web, mobile phones and other portable ICT devices. Although there are some basic principles of good, usable design, there are no rules that guarantee a good design. In this respect design for usability is like other branches of design, such as industrial design, book design or interior design.

Usability design draws on ideas from psychology, ergonomics, typography and so on, and makes extensive use of feed
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

This chapter is taken from: Stone, D., Jarett, C., Woodfoffe, M. and Minocha, S. (2005)
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1.3.5 Using colour to represent information

All UIs need to communicate information. Colour can be particularly effective for this. Table 4 summarises some of the techniques that are available.


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1.3.1 The role of colour

We can use colour in the following ways.

  • To draw attention. You will often find that important buttons or areas of the screen are a different colour. For example, warning signs are often in bright colours, such as amber or red. Your eyes are drawn to these colours.

  • To show status. As the status becomes more critical, the colour might change. An example of this is traffic lights changing from amber to red.


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8 Summary

This unit has discussed the importance of information assets to any modern organisation and has made the case for information security management. It has introduced you to extracts from the British Standard on Information Security Management and to the approach advocated in the Standard for establishing and managing an information security management system (ISMS). It has also introduced the PDCA cycle. A particular focus in this unit has been on the planning of an ISMS, and on the four tasks
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Other approaches to information security management

Many of the approaches to planning an ISMS to be found in the literature follow a three-phase, rather than a four-task, approach. For instance, Moses (1994) stipulates seven steps in three phases:

  • initiation: the identification of information assets and their security requirements;

  • analysis: the identification of possible risks to the security requirements of information assets, of the vulnerabilities to those risks, and of
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4.2 Information in an e-business age

Sharing information in business is itself a risky business. The information that is exchanged between b2b partners, for instance, may include order information, customer details and strategic documents. Such information could be priceless to outsiders. As you saw in the previous section, huge costs can result from information getting into the wrong hands.

In sharing information, an organisation also needs to be aware of the various laws, regulatory frameworks and codes of practice. Fail
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2.2.1 What is the difference between a worm and a virus?

Unlike a virus, a worm does not infect files on a host computer. Instead it adds a file to the computer that is malicious code, and runs it ‘in the background’. A computer has many programs running in this way in order for its system to operate. For instance, when you create a document you can see the text editor, such as Microsoft Word, Notepad or Star Office, but in the background the spell checker or the printer program are working even though you do not see them on the screen.

W
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Introduction

The World Wide Web is a vast information resource. This unit will provide you with the foundation skills to use search engines confidently to locate both information and images on the Web. You will also learn how to critically assess and reference the information you have found for study purposes.


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