"All Our Problems Stem from the Same Sex Based Myths": Gloria Steinem Delineates American Gender Myt
In the years following the 1920 ratification of the 19th Amendment extending voting rights to women, the National Woman's Party, the radical wing of the suffrage movement, advocated passage of a constitutional amendment to make discrimination based on gender illegal. The first Congressional hearing on the equal rights amendment (ERA) was held in 1923. Many female reformers opposed the amendment in fear that it would end protective labor and health legislation designed to aid female workers and p
Against Isolationism: James F. Byrnes Refutes Lindbergh
The interwar peace movement was arguably the largest mass movement of the 1920s and 1930s, a mobilization often overlooked in the wake of the broad popular consensus that ultimately supported the U.S. involvement in World War II. The destruction wrought in World War I (known in the 1920s and 1930s as the "Great War") and the cynical nationalist politics of the Versailles Treaty had left Americans disillusioned with the Wilsonian crusade to save the world for democracy. Senate investigations of w
A Word of Warning: A Former Slave Urges Constitutional Caution
The South Carolina Constitutional Convention of 1895 completed the process of disenfranchising African-Americans (and many poor whites). The state's restrictive policies began with the election law of 1882 that used an intricate system of eight ballot boxes to discourage illiterate white and black residents from voting. The 1895 convention added a poll tax and literacy test, thereby ensuring that a coalition of remaining black voters and disaffected whites could not unite to challenge Democratic
A Pledge of Allegiance: Joining the Grange
When the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry was first organized in Minnesota in December 1867, its goals were primarily social and educational. The organization spread rapidly throughout the agricultural Midwest, attracting more than 850,000 members by 1875. The Grange's purpose also expanded--it experimented (unsuccessfully) with cooperatives, and, angered by hard times, tight money, and high railroad shipping rates, moved into politics. Members elected sympathetic state legislators wh
"A Modern School": Abraham Flexner Outlines Progressive Education
In the early 20th century, an impressive array of intellectuals, social critics, and grassroots activists came together to launch a progressive education movement that sought broad-based change in American educational practice. At the heart of the progressive program lay a pedagogy that emphasized flexibility and critical thinking. This was coupled with the belief that schools should establish organic relationships with their communities, that curricula should confront broad social issues, and t
"A German Beer Garden on Sunday Evening."
Between 1820 and 1860, 1,500,000 immigrants arrived in America from Germany. Many of the new arrivals who settled in cities such as New York worked as shopkeepers and skilled tradesmen, although many more worked as employees in construction, brewing, and manufacturing. Although German immigrants did not mix politics and liquor, reformers were disconcerted by the atmosphere of their social establishments. Unlike the bars in Irish neighborhoods, the beer gardens catered to whole families. As this
"A Clear Signal to Officials of the White South: 'Go Back to Your Old Ways'": Vernon Jordan Argues A
The Voting Rights Act of 1965--called "the most successful civil rights law in the nation's history" by Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh, chairman of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights--was enacted in order to force Southern states and localities to allow all citizens of voting age to vote in public elections. Although the 15th Amendment, ratified in 1870, guaranteed citizens the right to vote regardless of race, discriminatory requirements, such as literacy tests, disenfranchised many African America
A Clear and Present Danger: The Chinese Exclusion Act
The San Francisco Building Trades Council (BTC), organized in 1898, actively participated in the anti-Asian agitation that characterized California politics, particularly labor politics, in the late-19th century. The BTC, like the national American Federation of Labor (AFL), argued that the very presence of Chinese (and, after 1900, Japanese and Korean immigrants as well) dragged down the living standards of white workers. The following excerpt is from a 1902 AFL pamphlet entitled Some Reasons f
Christopher Lydon compilation tape
Christopher Lydon interviews Bill Lee (pitcher, Montreal Expos) at Fenway Park. Lee discusses the possibility of a baseball strike. Lee talks about unions and his feelings about baseball. Lee says that he is no longer 'addicted' to baseball. This compilation tape has three essays by Robert J. Lurtsema about the coming of summer, the coming of fall and barnacles. Lydon reports on the upcoming preliminary elections for the Boston City Council. Lydon analyzes voting patterns in various districts an
Feelings of exclusion from the political process in the African American Community. Program analyzes why African American candidates were unable to win appointment to either Boston's School Committee or City Council in the 1975 elections. Guest host James Rowe of WILD Radio News speaks with Clarence Dilday (attorney and unsuccessful candidate for City Council), John O'Bryant (Director of the Dimock Community Health Center and unsuccessful candidate for School Committee), Richard Taylor (John O'B
Jigsaw puzzle size-up
This online jigsaw puzzle activity requires students to enlarge or shrink some puzzle pieces to make them the correct size for the puzzle. The choices for enlarging are 1.5, 2, and 4 times larger, while the sizes for shrinking are one-fourth, one-third, and one-half times smaller. The activity consists of three progressively more difficult eight-piece puzzles. The final puzzle lacks the outline on the puzzle board to help the student see where the pieces belong. A timer allows the student 20 sec
Drip drops : how much water do you waste?
In this activity, students are given a situation in which a leaky faucet is dripping at the rate of one drop every two seconds. They are asked to decide if the water lost in one week would fill a drinking glass, a sink, or a bathtub. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 challenges, notes that mathematics is crucial for environmental and government agencies that must interpret data and report their findings to the public. The Hint states that a teaspoon holds about 20 drops. Th
Middle School Portal: Math and Science Pathways (MSP2)
In this activity, students explore what percentage means when looking at election results. The activity is part of the Figure This! collection of 80 online mathematical challenges emphasizing real world uses of mathematics. The activity features questions designed to help students think carefully about how percentages are used mathematically to determine outcomes. The answer to the first question provides a detailed examination of election results. The importance of understanding the meaning of
Middle School Portal: Math and Science Pathways (MSP2)
This activity asks the student to determine if Florence Griffith-Joyner moved faster than a car traveling 15 miles per hour when she ran 10 meters at a record-breaking 0.91 seconds during the Seoul Olympics. The activity, from the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges, offers students real world problems related to conversions of units of measure for volume, distance, and temperature. Also included are questions relating to currency exchange and information about world records related to
Auburn vs. F.S.U. (1954)
"Coach Shug Jordan canned his famous X and Y team, and came up with a combination that served notice of things to come as Auburn got back into the IA in column with a 33-0 victory over the Florida State University Seminoles. Although the Tiger attack seemed sloppy at times, they moved at will, and after the first series of plays F.S.U. never appeared dangerous. From there the Plainsmen went straight home, with Free-man sneaking over half-way in the first period after recovering a fumble. In the
Auburn vs. Alabama (1955)
"The Auburn Tigers put the finishing touches on one of the greatest seasons in Auburn history by defeating hapless Alabama, 26-0, at Legion Field in Birmingham. Once again, Howell Tubbs and Jerry Elliott supplied the offensive thrills for the afternoon, with Tubbs tossing two scoring passes to Elliott and taking one in for him. The Tigers' steady quarterback gained 68 yards rushing and completed five of ten passes for 78 yards. Joe Childress proved once and for all that he deserved every bit of
Topics in Pre-Modern Japanese History
This book emphasizes a succession of topics rather than strict adherence to the flow of time. The chapters move from earlier periods of time to later periods of time, but their content and organization gives top priority to coverage of topics. While the "mainstream" narrative of politics and institutions is present in these pages, the emphasis is on social and cultural history wherever possible.
Let's Talk Politics: Berkeley Repertory Theatre
Acclaimed British playwright David Edgar takes aim at American politics with his two-play cycle, Continental Divide, at Berkeley Repertory Theatre. This Educator Guide explores the history of political activism and political theatre in the UK and the US.
African American Perspectives: Pamphlets from the Daniel A. P. Murray Collection, 1818-1907
This site presents a review of African-American history and culture as seen through the practice of pamphleteering. The site includes sermons on racial pride and essays on segregation, voting rights, and violence against African-Americans.
Addition - Timed Practice and Drill
Solve the addition facts before the time runs out. Offers timed addition fact practice for digits 1-10. Students are given a time limit to answer each question. The time limits become shorter as the student progresses. The time limits include 10 seconds, 8 seconds, 6 seconds, 5 seconds, 4 seconds, 3 seconds, and 2 seconds. Students are also able to take a 2 minute timed test and a 1 minute timed test.