2.1 Introduction

There are many types of system – not just ICT systems. For example, we all have a nervous system and, as you are studying T175, you are in a higher education system. Our homes have plumbing systems and electrical systems.

Activity 1 (exploratory)

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Other approaches to information security management

Many of the approaches to planning an ISMS to be found in the literature follow a three-phase, rather than a four-task, approach. For instance, Moses (1994) stipulates seven steps in three phases:

  • initiation: the identification of information assets and their security requirements;

  • analysis: the identification of possible risks to the security requirements of information assets, of the vulnerabilities to those risks, and
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5.2.4 Risk treatment

The risk treatment task is again carried out at unit level, in light of polices set out in Stages 1 to 3. The risks treated are those chosen for control at Stage 6.

  • Stage 7: select control objectives and controls For each risk chosen for control at Stage 6, a suitable control (countermeasure) must be selected from those suggested in the Standard or from elsewhere. The risks are treated in order of priority, according to the priority levels as
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4.2 Information in an e-business age

Sharing information in business is itself a risky business. The information that is exchanged between b2b partners, for instance, may include order information, customer details and strategic documents. Such information could be priceless to outsiders. As you saw in the previous section, huge costs can result from information getting into the wrong hands.

In sharing information, an organisation also needs to be aware of the various laws, regulatory frameworks and codes of practice. Fail
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3.3 Incentives

Activity 8

Reread the short section entitled ‘Benefits of an information security management system’ at the end of Chapter 1 of IT Governance: A Manager's Guide to Data Security & BS 7799/ISO 177799 (the Set Book). In light
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5.6 Reliability and usability

In this context we will define reliability as the ability of a technology to perform its intended function, without failure, under stated conditions and for a stated period of time. It is beyond the scope of this unit to provide a detailed comparison of the reliability of WiFi and Bluetooth – we simply want to alert you to some of the issues. Broadly these are:

  • What is the likelihood of data errors being introduced during transmission?


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4.2 Netiquette

Work through the following material on ‘netiquette’ and then try the quiz at the end of the section.


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2.1 Networked devices you use every day

The next activity aims to get you thinking a bit more about how ICT systems form part of your own life and to make you more aware of how you are living in a networked world. ICT systems are embedded in many everyday experiences and we have become so used to this that we hardly notice that we are using them.

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7.4.1 Architectural patterns

A software architecture is the broad structure of a software system. It describes its parts and how they are put together, and also captures an underlying rationale and associated concepts, such as professionalism (liability) and constraints (such as standards and economics). The term architecture is, again, reminiscent of its use in buildings.

Architectural patterns (also known as architectural styles) codify recurrent software architectures by describing the key
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7.2.13 Online trading

This business model encompasses the trading of financial instruments such as bonds and stocks via the internet. Online trading has been a feature of the financial industry for some time. However, it was carried out using internal networks. The internet has enabled the individual user to trade stocks and shares from home and has given rise to the term day trading.


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E Simultaneous equations

Simultaneous equations are pairs of equations that are both true (i.e. they are simultaneously true). They are both expressed as equations with two unknowns. By making one of these unknowns the subject of both equations, we can then substitute the subject in one equation and then solve for the other unknown. Then we can substitute back into the equation and solve for the subject.

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5.3 Technique 3: Visualisation

Creating calming pictures or images in your mind, or 'visualising', can really help you to relax.


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8.5 Reviewing

Undoubtedly this is the most difficult phase to apply to revision and an exam or to the preparation and production of an end-of-course assessment. Most of us heave a huge sigh of relief when it is all over and then try to put it out of our minds during the weeks while we wait for the results. When these arrive, it is very difficult to think back to the exam itself or revisit the details of the end-of-course assessment. With very little feedback to help, learning how to learn from exams or the
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4.9 When there's too much to do

This can be a real problem in large conferences. If, for whatever reason, you join a conference later than the other participants, or are unable to be involved for a while, the prospect of joining in can be a bit daunting. There will be lots of messages you haven't read and you may feel that everyone else knows each other.

The main thing to remember is that everyone will be pleased to ‘see’ you when you do join in, and will be helpful and supportive. Here are some strategies you can
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3.3 Real time chat

Online chat is a means of having a quick written conversation with one or more people who are online at the same time. Compared with email, there's less of a time lag in waiting for a response. Messages are likely to be more spontaneous, and it can be anarchic when several people reply at once.


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2.3 Learning more

Consider your main use for the PC, and check that you have the skills or knowledge you need. Although some students use spreadsheets and databases, the key skills for most students are:

  • word processing study notes and assignments;

  • searching for information on the web;

  • using conferencing and email.

If you feel you need to know more about using your computer there are a number of options open to you.
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1.1 Ways in which computers can help you to study

Courses use computers for a variety of different reasons. These are a few examples.

  • To let you explore ideas and concepts in more depth, such as by using a multimedia CD-ROM or DVD with interactive exercises.

  • To help you communicate with others on your course. Online conferences offer a way to contact other students and staff for information, discussion and mutual support.

  • To allow you to analyse data, see pictures or
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2.2.4 Reading graphs and charts: extracting information

When you are sure that you know what a chart or graph is all about, start to look for any main trends. Jot down for yourself a few conclusions that you think can be drawn. It often takes a little time before you can interpret the chart or graph properly. It is worth the effort, however, because information held in the form of a graph is highly patterned; and as our memories work by finding patterns in information and storing them, the information in graphs is easier to remember than informati
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2.1 Analysing text

Some people find it easy to use diagrams in their studies. But I realise that there are others who don't take to diagrams at all enthusiastically. If this is how you feel, please read what follows, as I am convinced that everyone can get something from using diagrams to help their thinking. However, if after working through these sections, you still believe that diagramming as an aid to studying is ‘not for you’, then don't force yourself into an approach that doesn't suit y
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5.1.4 History

There is no general dictionary or companion to the study of history as such. However, there are period and subject-specific companions and indexes, such as:

Jones, C. (1990) The Longman Companion to the French Revolution, London, Longman.

Consult those appropriate to your course.


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