Lecture 27 - 11/24/2010
Lecture 27
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Reuters Today: HSBC to pay biggest-ever bank fine
Dec. 12 - HSBC has agreed to pay $1.92 billion to settle a U.S. criminal probe into money-laundering -- the largest penalty ever paid by a bank.
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Carolling at Memorial Church
Each year in December, Harvard's Memorial Church presents members of the University community and beyond with the gift of song. For more than a century, the church's Harvard University Choir has performed two Christmas carol services that include readings by the clergy, and a mix of traditional and contemporary carols and hymns sung by both the choir and congregation. Read more in the Harvard Gazette: http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2012/12/a-musical-gift/
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Sing, Sing, Sing
Performed by the University of Richmond Jazz Ensemble at the 2012 Cuban Spectacular. Featuring dancers Myra Daleng and Michael Whitten, Emma Phillips, '13, on drums, and Nick Yeutter, '15 on clarinet. Directed by Dr. Mike Davison.
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1.1 The components of a balanced diet

A balanced diet contains six key nutrient groups that are required in appropriate amounts for health. These groups are outlined below.

  • Proteins are involved in growth, repair and general maintenance of the body.

  • Carbohydrates are usually the main energy source for the body.

  • Lipids or fats are a rich source of energy, key components of cell membranes and signalling molecules, and as myelin they insulate neurons (nerve cells
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4 Fossil fuels

Part of the incoming solar energy becomes stored in fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal:
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Acknowledgements

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Figures

Figure 4 BP (2
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4.3 Gamete production in men

A sexually mature man is producing sperm all the time at a rate of around 300–600 per gram of testis per second. This provides the 500 million or so which are released at each ejaculation. But the formation of an individual sperm takes about nine weeks (64 days). Sperm are produced in the testes, and production is most efficient at a temperature several degrees lower than the normal body temperature of 371°C. For this reason the testes (plural of testis) are suspended outside the body cavi
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8 Summary

  1. The rate at which water infiltrates into the ground depends on the permeability of the rocks and the state of the ground surface. Below the ground surface there is an unsaturated zone which has air in the pore spaces, and a saturated zone which has all the pores filled with water. The water table is the boundary between the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone, and is the level at which water stands in wells. Water below the water table is called groundwa
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6 Permeability

It is important to distinguish clearly between porosity and permeability. Porosity is a measure of how much water can be stored in a rock, whereas permeability is a measure of the properties of a rock which determine how easily water and other fluids can flow through it (see Section 4). Permeability depends on the exte
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1 Wave energy

The energy carried by ocean waves derives from a proportion of the wind energy transferred to the ocean surface by frictional drag. So, ultimately it stems from the proportion of incoming solar energy that drives air movement. Just how much energy is carried by a single wave depends on the wind speed and the area of ocean surface that it crosses; wave height, wavelength, and therefore wave energy, are functions of the distance or fetch over which the wind blows. Not surprisingly the ma
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6 Summary

  1. Waterlogged organic matter accumulates in deltaic, coastal barrier or raised mires to form peat. Coal forms by the compaction and decomposition of peat. Chemical changes imposed by increasing temperature and pressure over time determine the coal rank.

  2. Coalfields can be classified as either exposed or concealed, depending on whether or not the coal-bearing rocks are hidden by younger strata. In most coalfields, mining commenced in the shallower
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2.7 Summary

  1. Eukaryotic cells contain numerous distinct types of membrane-bound compartment. Transport vesicles move proteins and other molecules between the compartments.

  2. Proteins contain signalling sequences or patches that specify their destination compartment.

  3. Proteins destined for lysosomes, secretion or the plasma membrane are synthesised in the ER, transported to the cis Golgi, modified in the Golgi apparatus, and sorted and pa
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1.7 Localization of signalling proteins

Since signalling proteins cannot diffuse as rapidly as small second messengers, they need be close to their downstream target in order to be able to function. Where they are located with respect to both their subcellular position and their immediate neighbours is therefore vitally important. The plasma membrane is usually the initial location, and proteins can be attached to the plasma membrane in various ways (Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • recognise the terminology which is used to describe the properties and behaviour of active galactic nuclei (AGN);

  • manipulate numbers, algebraic symbols and mathematical functions in equations.


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1.3.1 Inheritance of colour in maize

We can trace the inheritance of characters in animals and plants by following the phenotype from generation to generation, in breeding experiments. We will describe work with maize (Zea mays), alternatively called corn (sweetcorn, or corn on the cob), which occurs throughout the world as an extremely important commercial crop plant, and which is used extensively in genetic research. We can also study the inheritance of characters at the level of the genotype. In this section we will ju
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1.2 Like begets like

It is possible to follow a character, such as eye colour or hair colour in humans, that is handed down from generation to generation. Such characters are said to be inherited characters (or heritable characters) and are determined by genes. A gene can be considered as a unit of inheritance, which determines a particular character and which is passed on from parent to offspring.

Genes maintain the differences between species, such as oak and human, but they also contribute
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should know:

  • the number of chromosomes is characteristic of each species and can vary enormously between species

  • genetics is based on the concept of the gene as the unit of inheritance

  • that sexual reproduction always includes two distinctive processes: the production of gametes, which involves meiosis, and fertilisation. The two processes are accompanied by changes in the chromosome number, from diploid to haploid and fr
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged be
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5.2 Madagascan diversity

Activity 7

Watch the video sequence below, which focuses on just three lemur species – the ring-tailed (in a very brief sequence, leaping from one tree to another), the golden bamboo lemur, already mentioned, and the sifaka, plus the
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