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3.2 Popular violence and the Revolution
This unit provides basic historical background to the French Revolution. It will show that the Revolution accelerated intellectual, cultural and psychological change, and opened up new horizons and possibilities. In fact, while much controversy and scepticism remain as to the real extent of underlying change in the social and economic structure of France, it is generally agreed by scholars that the Revolution stimulated a widening of expectations and imaginative awareness: a belief, inherited fr
Author(s): The Open University

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3.1 The moderate reformers
This unit provides basic historical background to the French Revolution. It will show that the Revolution accelerated intellectual, cultural and psychological change, and opened up new horizons and possibilities. In fact, while much controversy and scepticism remain as to the real extent of underlying change in the social and economic structure of France, it is generally agreed by scholars that the Revolution stimulated a widening of expectations and imaginative awareness: a belief, inherited fr
Author(s): The Open University

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2.5.1 Imagery of the Declaration
This unit provides basic historical background to the French Revolution. It will show that the Revolution accelerated intellectual, cultural and psychological change, and opened up new horizons and possibilities. In fact, while much controversy and scepticism remain as to the real extent of underlying change in the social and economic structure of France, it is generally agreed by scholars that the Revolution stimulated a widening of expectations and imaginative awareness: a belief, inherited fr
Author(s): The Open University

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2.4 Enlightened reformism – dismantling the Old Regime
This unit provides basic historical background to the French Revolution. It will show that the Revolution accelerated intellectual, cultural and psychological change, and opened up new horizons and possibilities. In fact, while much controversy and scepticism remain as to the real extent of underlying change in the social and economic structure of France, it is generally agreed by scholars that the Revolution stimulated a widening of expectations and imaginative awareness: a belief, inherited fr
Author(s): The Open University

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2.3 Fall of the Bastille, 14 July 1789
This unit provides basic historical background to the French Revolution. It will show that the Revolution accelerated intellectual, cultural and psychological change, and opened up new horizons and possibilities. In fact, while much controversy and scepticism remain as to the real extent of underlying change in the social and economic structure of France, it is generally agreed by scholars that the Revolution stimulated a widening of expectations and imaginative awareness: a belief, inherited fr
Author(s): The Open University

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2.2.1 Sample analysis and discussion of ‘What is the Third Estate?’
This unit provides basic historical background to the French Revolution. It will show that the Revolution accelerated intellectual, cultural and psychological change, and opened up new horizons and possibilities. In fact, while much controversy and scepticism remain as to the real extent of underlying change in the social and economic structure of France, it is generally agreed by scholars that the Revolution stimulated a widening of expectations and imaginative awareness: a belief, inherited fr
Author(s): The Open University

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2.2 The Third Estate as the voice of the nation
This unit provides basic historical background to the French Revolution. It will show that the Revolution accelerated intellectual, cultural and psychological change, and opened up new horizons and possibilities. In fact, while much controversy and scepticism remain as to the real extent of underlying change in the social and economic structure of France, it is generally agreed by scholars that the Revolution stimulated a widening of expectations and imaginative awareness: a belief, inherited fr
Author(s): The Open University

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1 Enlightenment, liberty and revolution
This unit provides basic historical background to the French Revolution. It will show that the Revolution accelerated intellectual, cultural and psychological change, and opened up new horizons and possibilities. In fact, while much controversy and scepticism remain as to the real extent of underlying change in the social and economic structure of France, it is generally agreed by scholars that the Revolution stimulated a widening of expectations and imaginative awareness: a belief, inherited fr
Author(s): The Open University

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2.2 Insider/outsider perspectives

Social historians have long argued that we must study history ‘from the underside’, if we want to thoroughly understand a society. In other words, it is not sufficient to have a top-down knowledge of a society's institutions and politics. We need also to examine how ordinary, ‘unimportant’ people operate within a culture: what influences them and what they can (and cannot) influence; how they see their role in society and how others see it. The outsider view is the view from
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1.3 Representation

Representation is a complex idea, or set of ideas, but it is extremely important in relation to studying religion. Representing religion might mean being an official delegate of a religion, or it might mean trying to explain a religion to someone unfamiliar with it. Representation in the religious context might mean the use of an image to portray a divine figure or religious ideas, or it could refer to how a religion is characterized by either insiders or outsiders. Therefore, the sorts of qu
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Freeman Lecture: Constitutions for a Continent, 1783-1790
The University of Richmond's Department of History has named University of California, Davis history professor Alan Taylor the 2010-2011 Douglas Southall Freeman Professor. The Douglas Southall Freeman Professorship was established in honor of the noted biographer and journalist by his family, and allows the department to bring a distinguished visiting historian to the campus annually. The Freeman Professor teaches one course and either delivers a series of public lectures or organizes an histo
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The 1905 Russian Revolution
Causes, Course, Consequences: In 1905 Russia became famous as a centre of Revolution. The eyes of Europe were focused upon modern forms of discontent, especially the mass strike, in an old political...

History as written and presented by current historians. Visit thehistoryfaculty.com for free downloads and more information.

Lenin & The Russian Revolution
Soviet and Western historiography has for long identified Lenin as the most influential figure in explaining how the October Revolution of 1917 took place. This follows a comment in Trotsky’s diary...

History as written and presented by current historians. Visit thehistoryfaculty.com for free downloads and more information.

Reasons for the Labour Landslide of 1945
Reasons for the Labour Landslide of 1945: Explanations given by Conservative Party in aftermath of election; Longer-term trends in society; Wartime politics; Composition of the electorate. Dr....

History as written and presented by current historians. Visit thehistoryfaculty.com for free downloads and more information.

1 Technological change, demand and costs

The new economy

Over the past 40 years global computing power has increased a billionfold. Number-crunching tasks that once took a week can now be done in seconds. Today a Ford Taurus car contains more computing power than the multimillion-dollar mainframe computers used in the Apollo space programme. Cheaper processing allows computers to be used for more and more purposes. In 1985, it cost Ford
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3.5 More examples of percentages
From politics to cookery, ratios, proportions and percentages are part of everyday life. This unit is designed to help you become more familiar with how figures can be manipulated, then you can check whether that discount really is as big as they claim!
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3.3.2 Try some yourself
From politics to cookery, ratios, proportions and percentages are part of everyday life. This unit is designed to help you become more familiar with how figures can be manipulated, then you can check whether that discount really is as big as they claim!
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3.2 Converting to a percentage
From politics to cookery, ratios, proportions and percentages are part of everyday life. This unit is designed to help you become more familiar with how figures can be manipulated, then you can check whether that discount really is as big as they claim!
Author(s): The Open University

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1.4 Converting ratios from fractions to decimals
From politics to cookery, ratios, proportions and percentages are part of everyday life. This unit is designed to help you become more familiar with how figures can be manipulated, then you can check whether that discount really is as big as they claim!
Author(s): The Open University

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5. Politician, Diplomat, Statesman (August 1, 2007)
History, Literature, Science, Politics, Law, inventor, founding father, humorist, Enlightenment, electricity, lightning rod, American Revolution, Poor Richard's Almanac, Pennsylvania Gazette, library, writer, Continental Congress, Freemason, United States
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