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6.3.2 Heat of vaporisation

Black read a paper on these experiments to the Glasgow Literary Society in April 1762, and then turned to the investigation of vaporisation. For reasons he himself found difficult to explain, Black was initially reluctant to accept that there was a similar heat of vaporisation. This was in spite of the fact that he (and presumably many cooks) had observed that it takes far longer to boil off water than it takes to raise water to boiling point. In October 1762, he devised a very simple experim
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6.2.2 Fixed air

It was well known that ‘air’ was given off by magnesia (or limestone) when treated with acids. Black sought to show that this ‘air’, which he called ‘fixed air’ (carbon dioxide), is also lost when magnesia is heated. Hampered by practical difficulties in his efforts to collect the fixed air liberated during the heating of magnesia, Black used a series of chemical reactions to prove his argument. He dissolved the magnesia usta in sulphuric acid to produce a solution of Epsom salt.
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5.3 Hutton's geology: ‘No vestige of a beginning – no prospect of an end’

Geologists are engaged on the business of reconstructing the earth's past and determining the agents of geological change. The only documentary evidence of the earth's origins and ancient past, and of the agents that had caused change, available to Hutton was the book of Genesis, and he had sceptically put it aside, along with miracles. But what if the processes that are presently observable were to be taken as the key to the past? How far might geological enquiry go with the assumptio
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3.4 The role of the Edinburgh Town Council

This route incidentally leads us to another important feature of the movement, namely the role of the Edinburgh Town Council and its provosts. (The English equivalent would be a lord mayor.) Throughout the eighteenth century, the Town Council, with a policy of enlightened self-interest, promoted the city by sponsoring or patronising its academic, medical and scientific life. The Council regarded the city's university, infirmary and medical school as institutions which, if given enough prestig
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3.3 Architecture

Printing and publishing, then, had their connections with the Enlightenment programme. Architecture too was related. The Adam family of architects (the father and his two sons) moved in the Edinburgh circle of the intellectuals. The young Robert Adam, for example, attended both McLaurin's mathematics lectures and Monro's anatomy lectures at the university, and his home life was enlivened by regular visits from the leading lights of the city. As one contemporary described the household, in a r
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3.1 Clubs and societies

The milieu was urban. It was not a business of isolated individuals working in country estates, or of secluded academics, cloistered within unworldly universities. The scene was convivial, social. The focus was Edinburgh, although Glasgow and Aberdeen were active too. Cities were small. Even the capital was intimate enough for its intelligentsia to be able to meet regularly and casually. ‘Here I stand, at what is called the Cross of Edinburgh’, wrote an excited visitor, ‘and within a fe
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4.5 Questions

The final activity in this section asks you to bring together the observations you’ll have made after watching each section of video.

Activity 16

Consider the following questions:

  1. Can
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2.4 The manufacture of kente

Activity 4

Once you’ve watched the video, describe the materials used in the manufacturing of kente.

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Introduction

This unit looks at the way meanings and values are assigned to textiles. You will examine how a piece of cloth can define wealth, status, and, in the past, office.


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2.6 Books and the internet as sources

Finally, let's come back to the different types of modern sources as indicated in Figure 1. Many of these types are familiar to you in one way or another, so we can be brief. The course A219 uses set books that students registered with the Open University are required to purchase. Three of them are clearly modern schol
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2.4.3 Literature

This doesn't have the kind of physical presence that material evidence does, but it has a different strength: it gives us, more literally, voices from the past. We can, as it were, hear the ancient Greeks and Romans speak, about what happened, about how they felt, about what they thought, and experience how they expressed themselves. This gives us a rather different access to their world, complementary to the one we get from material culture.

Like the word ‘arts’, literature can sug
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2.4 Ancient sources

As you have seen, exploring the Classical world is an interdisciplinary pursuit. Perhaps the most immediately obvious aspect of this interdisciplinary approach is that you will confront different kinds of ancient sources, often simultaneously, since one of them by itself may not be sufficient for answering a particular question you may have. Quite apart from whether a source is ancient or modern, the different disciplines that make up Classical Studies use different kinds of source material.
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References

Bell, Julia and Magrs, Paul (eds) (2001) The Creative Writing Coursebook, London: Macmillan, pp.75–8.
Neale, Derek (2012) The Book of Guardians, London: Salt.
Neale, Derek (1995) ‘The Barber's Victim’ in Raconteur, Graham Lord (ed.), No.6, London: Raconteur Publications.
Perry, Donna (ed.) (1993) Backta
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4.2 Raiding your past

The more you write, the more you will raid your own past. These incursions won't diminish or reduce your memories – rather those recollections can be enriched and become more fully realised. As Jamaica Kincaid says of her writing:

One of the things I found when I began to write was that writing exactly what happened had a limited amount of power for me. To say exactly what happened was less than what I knew happe
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3 Chronology

TimelineEvent
1746 (30 March) Goya born in Fuendetodos, in the province of Aragon.
1759 Carlos III of Spain ascends the throne.
1760 Goya apprenticed to the painter José Luzán.
1770–1 Travels in Italy.
1
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Learning outcomes

By the end of your work on this unit you should be able to:

  • analyse paintings centred on the human figure in terms of how a work's form and content together produce its meaning;

  • explain how and why French painting came to be used and controlled by the Napoleonic regime;

  • discuss the problems of interpretation raised by Gros's Napoleonic paintings;

  • locate Napoleonic painting within the broad shift from Neoclassicism to Romanticism in Fr
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Death

The final rite of passage, death itself, permeates the Victorian family album. Throughout the 19th century it was common practice, following the death of a relative, to commission memorial photographs. The overwhelming majority of these memorial photographs feature the person as living, not dead.

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2.4 National variation

Relatively little research has been undertaken by photohistorians in the field of domestic photography. However, we should be aware that photography developed in different ways in different countries. So, for example, in Britain the daguerreotype remained a luxury article, as high prices restricted sales to the comfortable classes, whereas in America, because of early mass production techniques, studios could offer 4 daguerreotypes for 1 dollar.

Photography was, however, a European inve
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3 Conclusion

In this unit you have been introduced to the main components of prose fiction and have been given the opportunity to develop and practise your critical and analytical skills. These are essential skills you will need to continue your stufdies in this area.


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • recognise and discuss selected library texts from the Renaissance to the present;

  • know how to approach literary texts in terms of genre, gender and the canon;

  • understand and be able to apply technical analytical terms;

  • engage in close analysis of narrative and poetic language;

  • recognise performance is an interpretation of dramatic texts;

  • engage in comparative
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