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5.2 Madagascan diversity

Activity 7

Watch the video sequence below, which focuses on just three lemur species – the ring-tailed (in a very brief sequence, leaping from one tree to another), the golden bamboo lemur, already mentioned, and the sifaka, plus the
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4.2 Other members of the bear family

Other omnivorous species of bear include the Asian black bear, the North American black bear and the Andean spectacled bear. Although polar bears spend their winters hunting seals out on the Arctic sea-ice, they have to come ashore when the ice melts in spring and find other sources of food.

Activity 2
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3.3 Variation

Fossil rodents are first found in rocks that date from around 65 million years ago (from the Eocene) and are thought to have evolved from insectivore/omnivore-type mammals that lived 100 million years ago (in the Cretaceous period). To say that they evolved from simply means that there probably is a direct line of descent but that the descendants have changed from their forebears. One of the most significant ways that evolutionary change can be brought about is by a process known as na
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1 Overview

As you walk down the street one day, you hear a voice from somewhere behind you that seems to be discussing this unit. It says:

‘My dad's tutor's no joker, and he told me the TMA's going to hit home with a bang.’

You turn to find the face behind the voice, which is a gravelly Glaswegian baritone, but the man has gone, leaving you to ponder what he has said. Let us call his sentence exam
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2.2 Why study ecology?

These days, bird watching is a popular leisure activity and in the past so were collecting insects, wild flowers and birds’ eggs (although such activities are not now recommended – indeed, they are often illegal – because of the potential damage they cause to flora and fauna). Some amateurs are or were truly experts in their fields. In fact, much of the original identification of the British flora and fauna was done by amateur naturalists. Many a Victorian vicar or other self-taught nat
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1.5.2 Sedimentary processes

Sedimentary grains are formed when the rocks at the Earth's surface are slowly broken up physically by exposure to wind and frost, and decomposed (chemically) by rainwater or biological action. These processes are collectively termed weathering. Once a rock has been broken up by weathering, the small rock fragments and individual mineral grains can be eroded from their place of origin by water, wind or glaciers and transported to be deposited elsewhere as roughly horizontal layers of sediment
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1.4.4 O is for Objectivity

One of the characteristics of ‘good’ information is that it should be balanced and present both sides of an argument or issue. This way the reader is left to weigh up the evidence and make a decision. In reality, we recognise that no information is truly objective.

This means that the onus is on you, the reader, to develop a critical awareness of the positions represented in what you read, and to take account of this when you interpret the information. In some cases, authors may be
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13 Post-compulsory science education

In a speech to the Institute of Economic Affairs in 2001, the then UK Secretary of State for Education said:

Young people choosing vocational study will be able to see a ladder of progression that gives structure, purpose and expectation to their lives, in the same way that a future pathway is clear to those who leave school to gain academic A-levels and enter university. Over-16s in full-time education will be abl
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Europe and the law
This unit will give you a basic understanding of EU law and the interaction between EU and domestic law. It will provide a brief explanation of the European Convention on Human Rights and other European legislation, as well as the background to such institutions as the European Council, the European Commission, the European Parliament and the European Court of Justice. First publish
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1.2 The growth of the legal system

The legal system plays a significant and growing role in society as our lives become governed by an increasing number of laws. As our society has become more sophisticated, a greater number of laws have been required. This in turn has resulted in our legal system becoming increasingly more complex. Changes in technology, the way in which we live and the types of relationships we have are all reflected by the law. Society expects the law to reflect its ideas, values and culture, so the law has
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4.3 Summary of accurate law reporting

This section stressed the importance of accurate law reporting which allows for legal principles to be collated, identified and accessed. I examined where you might locate case reports on particular areas of the law. These are:

  • Year Books (1275–1535)

  • Private reports (1535–1865)

  • Modern reports (1865 to present)

  • The Law Reports

  • Weekly Law Reports (citation WLR)

  • All
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4.2.10 DVD-ROMs and internet facilities

As in most other fields, the growth of information technology has revolutionised law reporting and law finding. Many of the law reports mentioned above are available both on DVD-ROM and via the internet through legal databases such as Justis, Lawtel, Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw UK. Many such databases, however, require you to complete a registration process and there may be a charge for the service. Altrnatively they may be available, for free, to registered university or college students studyin
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1.4: Price ratios and price indices

Aims The main aim of this section is to look at some different ways of measuring price increases.

In this section you will be looking at measuring price changes using price indices. In order to do this you will need to understand the concept of a price ratio. Price ratios are another way of looking at price increases or decreases, related to the proportional and percentage increases and decreases you have seen before.


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2.3 Link words

A lot of people use the equals sign wrongly in places where another word or phrase might actually make the meaning clearer. Sometimes a link word or phrase is useful at the beginning of a mathematical sentence: examples include ‘So’, ‘This implies’ or ‘It follows that’ or ‘Hence’.

Example 3

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1.4.8 The standard deviation

The interquartile range is a useful measure of dispersion in the data and it has the excellent property of not being too sensitive to outlying data values. (That is, it is a resistant measure.) However, like the median it does suffer from the disadvantage that its calculation involves sorting the data. This can be very time-consuming for large samples when a computer is not available to do the calculations. A measure that does not require sorting of the data and, as you will find in later uni
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1.4.2 Measures of location

Everyone professes to understand what is meant by the term ‘average’, in that it should be representative of a group of objects. The objects may well be numbers from, say, a batch or sample of measurements, in which case the average should be a number which in some way characterises the batch as a whole. For example, the statement ‘a typical adult female in Britain is 160 cm tall’ would be understood by most people who heard it. Obviously not all adult females in Britain are the same
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1.4.1 Introduction

Histograms provide a quick way of looking at data sets, but they lose sight of individual observations and they tend to play down ‘intuitive feel’ for the magnitude of the numbers themselves. We may often want to summarize the data in numerical terms; for example, we could use a number to summarize the general level (or location) of the values and, perhaps, another number to indicate how spread out or dispersed they are. In this section you will learn about some numerical summaries
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3.2: Histograms

It is a fundamental principle in modern practical data analysis that all investigations should begin, wherever possible, with one or more suitable diagrams of the data. Such displays should certainly show overall patterns or trends, and should also be capable of isolating unexpected features that might otherwise be missed. The histogram is a commonly-used display, which is useful for identifying characteristics of a data set. To illustrate its use, we return to the data set on infants with SI
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Studying mammals: The opportunists
Many mammals are food specialists, with complex adaptations that gear them toward a particular food source. So how do the omnivores survive and prosper without these fancy evolutionary features? This unit examines the physiology, diet and strategies of some of these opportunistic feeders. It is the sixth unit in the ‘Studying mammals’ series. Fir
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