A Word of Warning: A Former Slave Urges Constitutional Caution
The South Carolina Constitutional Convention of 1895 completed the process of disenfranchising African-Americans (and many poor whites). The state's restrictive policies began with the election law of 1882 that used an intricate system of eight ballot boxes to discourage illiterate white and black residents from voting. The 1895 convention added a poll tax and literacy test, thereby ensuring that a coalition of remaining black voters and disaffected whites could not unite to challenge Democratic
A Thorn in the Side: A Socialist Takes Aim at Gompers
During the 1890s, the American Federation of Labor (AFL) was faced with both the rising popularity of the People's Party in rural areas and attempts by the Populist movement to create a farmer-labor alliance. At the same time, socialist trade unionists lobbied for greater political involvement and adoption of several key socialist positions by the AFL. One of those socialist trade unionists was J. Mahlon Barnes, a Philadelphia cigar maker, member of the Cigarmakers' International Union, and memb
A Shoemaker and the Tea Party
George Robert Twelve Hewes, a Boston shoemaker, participated in many of the key events of the Revolutionary crisis. Over half a century later, Hewes described his experiences to James Hawkes. When Parliament passed the Tea Act in 1773, colonists refused to allow cargoes of tea to be unloaded. In the evening of December 16, with Hewes leading one group, the colonists dressed in "the costume of a Indian." They boarded the ships in Boston harbor and dropped the tea overboard. Hewes' account shed li
A Pledge of Allegiance: Joining the Grange
When the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry was first organized in Minnesota in December 1867, its goals were primarily social and educational. The organization spread rapidly throughout the agricultural Midwest, attracting more than 850,000 members by 1875. The Grange's purpose also expanded--it experimented (unsuccessfully) with cooperatives, and, angered by hard times, tight money, and high railroad shipping rates, moved into politics. Members elected sympathetic state legislators wh
"A Modern School": Abraham Flexner Outlines Progressive Education
In the early 20th century, an impressive array of intellectuals, social critics, and grassroots activists came together to launch a progressive education movement that sought broad-based change in American educational practice. At the heart of the progressive program lay a pedagogy that emphasized flexibility and critical thinking. This was coupled with the belief that schools should establish organic relationships with their communities, that curricula should confront broad social issues, and t
"A German Beer Garden on Sunday Evening."
Between 1820 and 1860, 1,500,000 immigrants arrived in America from Germany. Many of the new arrivals who settled in cities such as New York worked as shopkeepers and skilled tradesmen, although many more worked as employees in construction, brewing, and manufacturing. Although German immigrants did not mix politics and liquor, reformers were disconcerted by the atmosphere of their social establishments. Unlike the bars in Irish neighborhoods, the beer gardens catered to whole families. As this
A Clear and Present Danger: The Chinese Exclusion Act
The San Francisco Building Trades Council (BTC), organized in 1898, actively participated in the anti-Asian agitation that characterized California politics, particularly labor politics, in the late-19th century. The BTC, like the national American Federation of Labor (AFL), argued that the very presence of Chinese (and, after 1900, Japanese and Korean immigrants as well) dragged down the living standards of white workers. The following excerpt is from a 1902 AFL pamphlet entitled Some Reasons f
A Christ-like Character: A Catholic Priest Champions Henry George
In the late 19th century, Irish-Catholic immigrants and their children were a bulwark of the New York Democratic Party and especially the machine politicians of Tammany Hall. In the mayoral election of 1886, Tammany fought hard to retain the support of these Irish-Catholic voters in the race between Democrat Abram Hewitt and United Labor Party candidate Henry George. While Catholic Church leaders opposed George and actively worked to prevent his election, Father Edward McGlynn enthusiastically b
Problem-solving and Web resources at tertiary level
We organised two experimental teaching designs involving web resources in two different French universities. In this paper, we describe these experiments and analyse the students' behaviours. Our aim is to observe whether the use of specific online resources favours the development of problem-solving activities.
Whether you want to go for a semester, a year or just a few weeks, Kent State University has a study abroad opportunity to fit your needs. A wide range of available scholarships ensures the opportunity fits within your budget. With Kent State campuses in Florence, Italy, and Geneva, Switzerland, and a multitude of exchange partnerships with other countries, great choices abound. Beyond the adventure and fun of visiting a foreign country, you'll be gaining invaluable, real-world experience and
'Blast from the Past' with Chico Neblett
'Blast from the Past' features an excerpt from a Say Brother interview with Chico Neblett, a Boston Field Marshall for the Black Panther Party, who talks about institutional racism in the White Community and the need to be unified and to organize institutions in Black Communities.
Andrew Young and NAACP members criticize Bush
Deborah Wang reports that notes that Andrew Young (Mayor of Atlanta) was the keynote speaker at a gathering of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund gathered in Boston this evening. Wang notes that many members of the Legal Defense Fund are skeptical of President George Bush's commitment to civil rights; she adds that civil rights advocates are worried about Bush making conservative appointments to the judiciary. Wang interviews Young about Bush's presidency and his possible judicial appointments. Young
African American entrepreneurs
Alexandra Marks reports on the challenges faced by minority businesses in Boston. She notes that Jet-A-Way is multi-million dollar company that recycles trash, industrial waste, and construction debris. Marks interviews Jesse Jeter (marketing director, Jet-A-Way) and company founders Ed Jeter and Darlene Jeter about the challenges they have faced as a minority business. Jesse Jeter says that racism is still a problem. Ed Jeter says that the business benefited minority quotas in the early years.
Jigsaw puzzle size-up
This online jigsaw puzzle activity requires students to enlarge or shrink some puzzle pieces to make them the correct size for the puzzle. The choices for enlarging are 1.5, 2, and 4 times larger, while the sizes for shrinking are one-fourth, one-third, and one-half times smaller. The activity consists of three progressively more difficult eight-piece puzzles. The final puzzle lacks the outline on the puzzle board to help the student see where the pieces belong. A timer allows the student 20 sec
Middle School Portal: Math and Science Pathways (MSP2)
Given that a square table sits one person per side, this activity challenges students to figure out how many tables would need to be pushed together to seat a party of nineteen. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges emphasizing math in the real world, explains how arranging geometric shapes is important to architects, landscapers, and quilters. Students are encouraged to model the problem using squares of paper to represent tables. Related questions ask students
Drip drops : how much water do you waste?
In this activity, students are given a situation in which a leaky faucet is dripping at the rate of one drop every two seconds. They are asked to decide if the water lost in one week would fill a drinking glass, a sink, or a bathtub. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 challenges, notes that mathematics is crucial for environmental and government agencies that must interpret data and report their findings to the public. The Hint states that a teaspoon holds about 20 drops. Th
Middle School Portal: Math and Science Pathways (MSP2)
This activity asks the student to determine if Florence Griffith-Joyner moved faster than a car traveling 15 miles per hour when she ran 10 meters at a record-breaking 0.91 seconds during the Seoul Olympics. The activity, from the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges, offers students real world problems related to conversions of units of measure for volume, distance, and temperature. Also included are questions relating to currency exchange and information about world records related to
Auburn vs. F.S.U. (1954)
"Coach Shug Jordan canned his famous X and Y team, and came up with a combination that served notice of things to come as Auburn got back into the IA in column with a 33-0 victory over the Florida State University Seminoles. Although the Tiger attack seemed sloppy at times, they moved at will, and after the first series of plays F.S.U. never appeared dangerous. From there the Plainsmen went straight home, with Free-man sneaking over half-way in the first period after recovering a fumble. In the
Auburn vs. Alabama (1955)
"The Auburn Tigers put the finishing touches on one of the greatest seasons in Auburn history by defeating hapless Alabama, 26-0, at Legion Field in Birmingham. Once again, Howell Tubbs and Jerry Elliott supplied the offensive thrills for the afternoon, with Tubbs tossing two scoring passes to Elliott and taking one in for him. The Tigers' steady quarterback gained 68 yards rushing and completed five of ten passes for 78 yards. Joe Childress proved once and for all that he deserved every bit of
Topics in Pre-Modern Japanese History
This book emphasizes a succession of topics rather than strict adherence to the flow of time. The chapters move from earlier periods of time to later periods of time, but their content and organization gives top priority to coverage of topics. While the "mainstream" narrative of politics and institutions is present in these pages, the emphasis is on social and cultural history wherever possible.