References

Goodman, M. (1997) The Roman World, 44 BC–AD 180, London and New York, Routledge, Routledge History of the Ancient World.
Nicolet, C. (1991) Geography, Space and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.
Grant, M. (trans.) (1996) Tacitus: the Annals of Imperial Rome, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books. (First published 1956
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References

Canetti, E. (1962 edn) Crowds and Power, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
Foner, P.S. (1977) History of the Labor Movement in the United States, vol. 3, New York, International Publications.
Koebner, R. and Schmidt, H.D. (1964) Imperialism: The Story and Significance of a Political Word, 1840–1950, Cambridge University Press.
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References

Barrett, S.M. (2006) ‘Implementation studies: time for a revival?’ in Budd, L., Charlesworth, J. and Paton, R. (eds) Making Policy Happen, London, Routledge/Milton Keynes, The Open University (Course Reader).
Barrett, S. and Fudge, C. (1981) Policy and Action, London, Methuen.
Budd, L., Charlesworth, J. and Paton, R. (eds) (2006) Making Policy Happe
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1.5 The problem of power: policy as political

The plural polity that characterises contemporary policy making means that many stakeholders are involved in the policy-action relationship dynamic, from commercial firms, public and non-profit organisations, the professions, central and local government, service delivery organisations, trade unions and the media, to organised groups of the public itself. Viewing policy as political, then, does not mean simply focusing on politicians. Rather, it signifies adopting a stakeholder perspective in
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Introduction

Most of the literature on the policy process focuses on how policy is made: the processes of negotiation and bargaining that take place, the struggle between rationality and politics, and the tension between ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches. This unit is concerned with a rather different set of dynamics: the relationship between policy and what actually happens in the process of delivery. Formal, sequential descriptions of the policy process relegate this phase to the i
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Acknowledgements

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Text

Boxes 4 and 5.2: Clegg, S et al., Managing Organisations: An Introduction to Th
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References

Ansoff, H.I. (1965) Corporate Strategy, Penguin, Harmondsworth.
Galambos, L. and Sturchio, J. (1996) ‘The pharmaceutical industry in the twentieth century: a reappraisal of the sources of innovation’, History and Technology, Vol. 13, pp. 83–100.
Gambardella, A. (1995) Science and Innovation in the US Pharmaceutical Industry, Cambridge Universi
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References

Boddy, D. and Buchanan, D. (1992) Take the Lead: Interpersonal Skills for Project Managers, London, Prentice Hall.
Buchanan, D. and Badham, R (1999) Power, Politics and Organizational Change, London, Sage.
Deeble, S. (1999) ‘Holding hands on the brands’, The Guardian, 17 July.
Fowler, A. and Walsh, M. (
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References

Lemert, C. (1993) ‘Social Theory: Its Uses and Pleasures’ in Lemert, C. (ed.) Social Theory: The Multicultural and Classic Readings, Oxford, Westview Press.
Millet, K. (1970) Sexual Politics, New York, Doubleday.
Schütz, A. (1943) ‘The Problem of Rationality in the Social World’, Economica, Vol. X, May, pp. 130–49.

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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • identify criteria to evaluate the politics of racial violence.