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7.2 Preparing and drafting a Bill

A period of preparation of a Bill allows time to scrutinise evidence on the policies underlying Bills, and to consider whether Bills can be improved before they are introduced. Proper preparation of a Bill should lead to better-informed debates on Bills when they are introduced, and may save time by identifying problems at an early stage. This period of pre-legislative scrutiny allows valuable time for consideration, and therefore helps to avoid introducing laws that are unworkable. Consultat
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7.1 Reserved and devolved matters

As stated earlier, the UK Parliament can still legislate on reserved matters and also on devolved matters, with the agreement of the Scottish Parliament. This section looks at the law making process at Westminster. It is a very different process, which involves both the Houses of the Westminster Parliament.

An Act of the UK Parliament also starts off as a Bill, which, if approved by a majority in the House of Commons and the House of Lords, will become an Act of the Westminster Parliame
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6.7 Royal Assent

Section 32 of the Scotland Act provides that a Bill, once passed, must be submitted for Royal Assent. This is done after a period of four weeks. During that time, the Bill is subject to legal challenge by the Advocate General for Scotland, the Lord Advocate or the Attorney General, and may also be subject to an order made by the Secretary of State. The Presiding Officer may, however, submit the Bill for Royal Assent after less than four weeks if notified by all three Law Officers and the Secr
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5.2 Further information about devolution

You might want to look at some other OpenLearn units that consider devolution:

  • DD203_2 Nationalism, self-determination and secession

  • DD203_1 The politics of devolution

  • DD200_1 A Europe of the regions?

6.1 Introduction

We have now looked at how formal rules are formulated, and at some of the strategies that may be deployed when interpreting them. In this part we will take this one step further and explore in more detail something that we have already touched on and thought about – the application of rules. This is a really important thing to understand, since rules are designed to regulate conduct, and have to be applied to instances of the conduct with which they are concerned.

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5.3 Summary of Part D

After studying Part D you should be able to:

  • explain the difficulties of interpreting written statements;

  • explain what is meant by indeterminacy;

  • explain what is meant by interpretive strategies;

  • describe the literal approach to interpretation;

  • describe the approach to interpretation which seeks to avoid absurdity;

  • describe the approach to interpretation which looks t
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5.2.2 Avoiding absurdity

One such strategy is to be as true to the literal meaning as is possible but to ensure, so far as the words allow, an interpretation which avoids absurdity. In the case of the rule I have just set out, this would mean an interpretation which ensured that only those customers who had caused breakages were obliged to pay for them.

This approach works well in most cases, but not always. Take, for example, another rule posted up in a shop selling china and glass:

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5.2.1 A literal approach

One way in which we can interpret a rule is by treating it literally. Very simply this means looking at the words which comprise the rule, and at the way in which they are put together, and applying the rule ‘as is’ to a factual situation to which it applies. An example would be: ‘Dog owners are not permitted to let their dogs off the lead in the park’. If this is applied literally, it would mean that a person who did not own a dog, but who took a friend's dog to the park, w
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5.1 Introduction

We have seen some of the difficulties that Mrs Biggs has faced when formulating a sufficiently general and sufficiently specific rule to deal with the conduct of the visitors to her garden. In Part D we take things a step further by looking at some of the difficulties which may arise when it comes to interpreting rules such as the one developed (with your help) by Mrs Biggs. In particular, we will be exploring the way in which our understanding of the language used in rules affects our interp
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4.3 Summary of Part C

After studying Part C you should be able to:

  • explain the problems associated with formulating rules;

  • identify whether a rule is too specific;

  • identify whether a rule is too general;

  • identify solutions to a problem of rule formulation.

4.2 Formulating rules

Activity 4 should have shown you that the language used for making rules can sometimes make them difficult to understand. Given that we can only comply with a rule if we know what it means, this is a big problem! In this part of the unit we are going to look at the process of making rules in more detail – and you are going to have the opportunity to make a rule that can be understood and which is effective in achieving what it sets out to do.

It is worth restating that rules are made
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3.4 Summary of Part B

After studying Part B you should be able to:

  • describe the relevance of policy for rule making;

  • recognise differing reactions to Ireland's ban on smoking in the workplace;

  • demonstrate/explain the implications of the rules governing Ireland's ban on smoking in the workplace.

3.3 The Irish anti-smoking law

You now know what the Irish Government's arguments for introducing the smoking ban were, and have read some of the reactions to it. We are now going to turn to the law itself. The passage I want you to read is from the Irish Government Public Services website and explains the new law in simple language. Read the passage in Box 4 carefully and answer the questions in the activity which follows. The questions ask you to interpret the rules, something we will be looking at in more detail later i
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3.2 The policy behind Ireland's ban on smoking in the workplace

In order to explore these issues, we are going to look at the introduction of a rule in the Republic of Ireland – the ban on smoking in places where people work which was introduced in 2004. What I would like you to do first is to think about your own position on this subject. The purpose of the next activity is to provide you with an opportunity to think about your own attitudes to a particular kind of behaviour which many people feel should be subject to legal control. It is useful to wor
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3.2 Law in action vs law in books

Most people's experience of law is with what might be called the ‘law in action’. We observe or encounter the application of law in practice through our contact with, for example, solicitors, the courts or the police, and we tend to associate their work with the law. We have, however, seen that social workers are also legal actors, professionals with legal power and authority. They are therefore very much part of the law in action, even if they do not fit your immediate associations
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4.3 Summary of Part C

In Part C you explored the relationship between UK law and human rights. You learnt about the historical approaches taken to rights in the UK, that individuals could do as they please unless there was a law restricting or preventing that conduct. The UK had been a signatory to the ECHR for many years before passing the Human Rights Act. Through activities you explored the debate on incorporation of the ECHR and its perceived effect.

3.8 Summary of Part B

In Part B you learned more about the ECHR and the procedures of the ECtHR and how protocols have been used to ensure that the ECHR remains a living instrument. Part B also explored the new challenges created by the rapid expansion of HCPs at the end of the last century and the proposals for reform of the ECtHR.

3.1 Introduction

Precedent is the basis of the common law. The doctrine of binding precedent is known as the doctrine of stare decisis, which is Latin meaning ‘to stand by/adhere to decided cases’, i.e. to follow precedent. In other words, once a principle is decided it should be followed in future cases. The doctrine refers to the fact that, within the hierarchical structure of the English courts, the decision of a higher court will be binding on a lower court. In general terms, this means th
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RES.2-002 Finite Element Procedures for Solids and Structures (MIT)
Finite element analysis is now widely used for solving complex static and dynamic problems encountered in engineering and the sciences. In these two video courses, Professor K. J. Bathe, a researcher of world renown in the field of finite element analysis, teaches the basic principles used for effective finite element analysis, describes the general assumptions, and discusses the implementation of finite element procedures for linear and nonlinear analyses. These videos were produced in 1982 a
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1.2 What are ICTs?
We now live in a global village where distance in no longer a barrier to commercial or social contact. This unit will enable you to gain an understanding of the information and communication technologies that drive our networked world and how they now permeate our everyday lives.
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