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Acknowledgements

This chapter is taken from Living Political Ideas (eds) Geoff Andrews and Micheal Saward published in association with Edinburgh University Press (2005) as part of a series of books which forms part of the course DD203 Power, Dissent, Equality: Understanding Contemporary Politics.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Author(s): The Open University

6.7 What about alternatives to secession?

We have seen that in principle there are alternatives: cultural autonomy or a form of federalism. There are alternative ways to recognise 'national' identity apart from secession.

One conclusion to arise from this discussion of secession is that we are not cast adrift without any general principles or guidelines. We have also seen how the complexities of the real political world impinge upon poli
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6.4 Does one community seceding grant a similar right to others?

Consider the position of community C. If B secedes, it takes C with it into the new state. But does C then have the same right to secede from B? Consider the case of Quebec. In the most recent independence referendum, Quebecois separatists came very close to achieving the bare majority they need to achieve their goal. But if they have the right to secede from Canada, would other groups who do not see themselves as a part of a francophone entity likewise have the right to a further independenc
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5.2 ‘The prioritisation of a particular group – the nation – as a key constitut

No particular form of articulating the nation is required by the formulation of this first element; the nation might be ‘imagined’ or ‘constructed’ as homogenous or as pluralistic and diverse, for example. However nationhood is imagined, though, it will invariably involve some form of suppression of alternative ways of classifying peoples. Consider that for most of us there are linguistic, class, ethnic, location, gender, religious and other aspects to our identities. If nation
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4 What is a ‘nation’?

Guibernau (1996, p. 47) has defined the nation as: ‘a human group conscious of forming a community, sharing a common culture, attached to a clearly demarcated territory, having a common past and a common project for the future and claiming the right to rule itself’. So awareness, territory, history and culture, language and religion all matter. However, it is rare in the real world to find a case of a nation with a clear-cut and homogenous character in terms of this list of possibilities.
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3 Self-determination: individual and collective

The idea of a right to ‘collective self-determination’ is a difficult one – how can a group, as opposed to an individual, have a ‘right’? To argue that a nation has a right to self-determination is, some might argue, to overlook what rights are, and who can claim them.

'Self-determination’ has a positive ring about it – how could anyone oppose it? The idea of self-determination has strong resonances in political theory, dating back as far as Hobbes, at least in Engl
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1 Preface

Political theorists – classic writers such as Hobbes and Rousseau but contemporary ones too – have often assumed a neat fit between this government and that territory and its population, as if the fit between the two were somehow natural or timeless. Reality is always messier than that, of course. Countries, or nation-states, are in part constructed entities or communities – political units that are consciously demarcated and separated from others. As Guibernau comments,
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • grasp the concepts of nation, nationalism and self-determination;

  • have a better understanding of the role they play in current political disputes;

  • think about the problem of how to take democratic decisions about secession;

  • relate political theory to political practice more rigorously;

  • take a more informed and active part in debates about national and international politic
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8 Governance beyond the UK: The EU

One of the elements invoked in favour of regional devolution involves the significance of regions within the European Union. While some refer to the principle of subsidiarity (governing, when possible, at the local level), as promoted by the EU, as an argument in favour of devolution, others emphasize that regional government improves the prospect of receiving EU regional subsidies. At the moment, there are striking differences between regions within Europe. While some regions have an economi
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7.1 History

So far, I have provided a brief historical background for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, one that accounts for their distinctive identities and for the origins of their differing role within the UK. I have also defined devolution as an asymmetric decentralisation process which responds to the claims advanced by the nations constituting the UK state. What, then, do we mean by Britain? Is it a nation? If so, when did the British nation begin to exist? The historian Linda Colley
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References

Baxter, C, Poonia, K., Ward, L. and Nadirshaw, Z. (1990). Double Discrimination: Issues and Services for People with Learning Difficulties from Black and Ethnic Minority Communities, London, Kings Fund Centre.
Becker, G. (1971). The Economics of Discrimination. Series: (ERS) Economic Research Studies.
Blackaby, D., Clark, K., Leslie, D. and Murphy, P. (1994). B
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5.3.2 Productivity difference

The preceding discussion has only considered what would happen if all women undertake less investment in human capital than men. If men and women invest to the same extent, human capital theory suggests that no wage differences would be observed. What happens, however, if there are differences in skill levels both between genders and within gender groups? To consider this we will also make the additional assumption that firms do not know when recruiting workers who are the most productive. Ho
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • illustrate what is social about social science;

  • demonstrate how certain social constructions become dominant;

  • distinguish how labelling something can create expectations about behaviour and actions;

  • give examples of inequalities that result from particular social constructions.


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Digital communications
Optical-fibre communications became commercially viable in the 1970s and innovation continues today. This unit will illustrate how very high data rates can be transmitted over long distances through optical fibres. You will learn how these fibres are linked, examine the technology used and assess the future direction of this continually developing area of communication.Author(s): Creator not set

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Exercises on Section 5

Exercise 12

Give a full description of a function (using the infix notation ×) corresponding to multiplication of integers.

Answer


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Objectives for Section 2

After studying this section you should be able to do the following.

  • Recognise and use the terminology: real number; set; element or member of a set; empty set; length of a sequence; empty sequence, ordered pair, n-tuple, Cartesian product.

  • Appreciate that use of precise notation such as the use of different types of bracket conveys important information when using formal notation. For example, square brackets [ and ] d
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2.1 Numbers

The supermarket example discussed in Section 1 involves various forms of data that a computer may need to handle. Some of these, such as numbers and characters, are simple but fundamental. Other forms of data, such as sequences, involve more complicated structure. In this section, we will introduce sets, which are a variety of data collection that is different from sequences. But first we will look more carefully at numbers and characters.

When developing software we need to dist
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7.4 Multiplying 2's complement integers

Multiplication can be thought of as repeated addition. For instance, in denary arithmetic

7 × 5

can be thought of as

7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7

There is therefore no need for a new process for the multiplication of binary integers; multiplication can be transformed into repeated addition.

In multiplication the result is very often much larger than either of the two integers being multiplied, and so a multiple-length representation may be needed to hold the result of a mu
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7.2 Adding 2's complement integers

The leftmost bit at the start of a 2's complement integer (which represents the presence or absence of the weighting −128) is treated in just the same way as all the other bits in the integers. So the rules given at the start of Section 7.1 for adding unsigned integers can be used.

Example 7


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2.2.1 Positive integers: denary numbers

The number system which we all use in everyday life is called the denary representation, or sometimes the decimal representation, of numbers. In this system, the ten digits 0 to 9 are used, either singly or in ordered groups. The important point for you to grasp is that when the digits are used in ordered groups, each digit is understood to have a weighting. For example, consider the denary number 549. Here 5 has the weighting of hundreds, 4 has the weighting of tens and
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