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6 Conclusion

As you moved through the various techniques we can use to analyse media texts in Sections 2 to Section 4, you should have discovered how rich even the simplest text can be in its drawing on political, social and cultural meanings discernible by close attention. Textual analysis enables you to register and negotiate the polysemy of texts and to see how the preferred reading is not the only one available. The preferred reading may be given prominence, however, by anchoring or by the genre chose
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions).This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

This extract is taken from D315: Crime, order and social control, produced by the BBC on behalf of the Open University.

© 2007
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1 The purpose, efficacy and regulation of CCTV

John Muncie presents a series of opposing views about the purpose, efficacy and regulation of CCTV. The audio programme was recorded in 1994.

Participants in the audio programme were:

  • John Muncie Professor of Criminology at The Open University;

  • Bob Patison Superintendent with the Newcastle Police force;

  • Andrew Puddephat General Secretary of Liberty (civil rights organisation);


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Introduction

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Crime, order and social control (D315) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this subject area.


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1 New Labour's approach welfare reconstruction

This audio file, recorded in 1999, explores questions about New Labour's approach to welfare reconstruction. The discussion is lead by John Clarke with contributions from Ruth Lister and Sharon Gerwitz and contains extracts of Tony Blair's speeches.

Participants in the audio programme were:

  • John Clarke Professor of Social Policy at The Open University;

  • Ruth Lister Professor of Social Policy, Loughborough Universit
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6.4 Does one community seceding grant a similar right to others?

Consider the position of community C. If B secedes, it takes C with it into the new state. But does C then have the same right to secede from B? Consider the case of Quebec. In the most recent independence referendum, Quebecois separatists came very close to achieving the bare majority they need to achieve their goal. But if they have the right to secede from Canada, would other groups who do not see themselves as a part of a francophone entity likewise have the right to a further independenc
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7.1 History

So far, I have provided a brief historical background for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, one that accounts for their distinctive identities and for the origins of their differing role within the UK. I have also defined devolution as an asymmetric decentralisation process which responds to the claims advanced by the nations constituting the UK state. What, then, do we mean by Britain? Is it a nation? If so, when did the British nation begin to exist? The historian Linda Colley
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References

Bartlett, R. (1994) The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950–1350, London, Penguin.

Bideleux, R. (1999) ‘Europeanization’ versus ‘democratization’ in east-central Europe’, paper delivered to Budapest conference on Democratic Transition and Consolidation.

Bugge, P. (1995) ‘Europe 1914–1945: the nation supreme’ in van der Dussen, J. and Wilson, K. (eds) The History of the Idea of Europe, London, Routledge/The Open Universi
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References

Baxter, C, Poonia, K., Ward, L. and Nadirshaw, Z. (1990). Double Discrimination: Issues and Services for People with Learning Difficulties from Black and Ethnic Minority Communities, London, Kings Fund Centre.
Becker, G. (1971). The Economics of Discrimination. Series: (ERS) Economic Research Studies.
Blackaby, D., Clark, K., Leslie, D. and Murphy, P. (1994). B
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5.3.2 Productivity difference

The preceding discussion has only considered what would happen if all women undertake less investment in human capital than men. If men and women invest to the same extent, human capital theory suggests that no wage differences would be observed. What happens, however, if there are differences in skill levels both between genders and within gender groups? To consider this we will also make the additional assumption that firms do not know when recruiting workers who are the most productive. Ho
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4.1 Natural/social

In the previous section we looked at the issue of competing explanations of social problems. Here we want to take a rather different approach by starting from one of the major dividing lines between different types of explanation. These dividing lines are ones that recur in the definition, interpretation and explanation of a range of social issues: for example, patterns of inequality between men and women; crime and juvenile delinquency; the persistence of poverty, and so on. Despite the fact
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3.1 Competing explanations of social problems

If we can agree that poverty is a social problem, we are led to another question: what sort of social problem is it? For some, it is a social problem because people should not be poor: it involves social injustice. For others, poverty is a social problem because poor people behave badly (or bring up children poorly): it involves social disorder. We therefore have another parting of the ways, with some believing that social justice requires poor people to become less poor, and others believing
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Digital communications
Optical-fibre communications became commercially viable in the 1970s and innovation continues today. This unit will illustrate how very high data rates can be transmitted over long distances through optical fibres. You will learn how these fibres are linked, examine the technology used and assess the future direction of this continually developing area of communication.Author(s): Creator not set

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Objectives for Section 2

After studying this section you should be able to do the following.

  • Recognise and use the terminology: real number; set; element or member of a set; empty set; length of a sequence; empty sequence, ordered pair, n-tuple, Cartesian product.

  • Appreciate that use of precise notation such as the use of different types of bracket conveys important information when using formal notation. For example, square brackets [ and ] d
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5.3 Regaining meaning

Suppose for a minute that the numbers I presented above were generated by a scanner as it produced a bitmap of a photograph. Clearly, the machine on which they are stored will have to get the image back to us by means of a device that can render it into a form meaningful to the human eye – an output device. I shall shortly review such devices. However, there is still work to be done before the computer can pass digitally-encoded data to such a device. For a start it will need to have
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7.6 Arithmetic with binary fractions

My final point in the preceding section brings home the fact that integer arithmetic is not really suitable when divisions are to be performed. It is also not suitable where some or all of the values involved in the arithmetic are not – or are not necessarily – integers, and this is often the case. In such cases, arithmetic has to be performed on non-integers.

The most common representation for non-integers is the floating-point representation that I mentioned briefly in Box 3. You
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7.4 Multiplying 2's complement integers

Multiplication can be thought of as repeated addition. For instance, in denary arithmetic

7 × 5

can be thought of as

7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7

There is therefore no need for a new process for the multiplication of binary integers; multiplication can be transformed into repeated addition.

In multiplication the result is very often much larger than either of the two integers being multiplied, and so a multiple-length representation may be needed to hold the result of a mu
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16.7 A loyalty card scheme

Supermarkets, and other types of retailer, use loyalty cards to encourage customers to use their particular shops. Points are awarded when a customer spends money in the shop. Supermarkets ‘reward’ their customers by converting loyalty card points into vouchers. They may also give them discount vouchers for a range of products.

Supermarkets use their loyalty card schemes to collect data about their customers. Data about each customer is held in a large database where each customer i
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Learning outcomes

This is what you should have achieved when you have completed your study of this unit:

  • Know the meaning of all the terms highlighted in the text.

  • Be aware of the main processes in an ICT system (sending, receiving, storing, retrieving, manipulating, conveying).

  • Be aware of some of the hardware, software and communication components used in ICT systems.

  • Use a system map or a block diagram to identify the components of an ICT system.
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References

Eyewitness Travel Guide (1997) Amsterdam. London, Dorling Kindersley. pp. 120-1.
Götz, V. (1998) Color and Type for the Screen. Berlin, RotoVision (in collaboration with Grey Press).
Hartley, J. (1994) Designing Instructional Text. 3rd edn. London, Kogan Page.
Michaelis, P. R. and Wiggins, R. H. (1982) ‘A human
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