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Law making in the House of Commons and House of Lords

One of the main functions of both Houses of Parliament is to discuss, debate and pass new laws. Laws made by Parliament are called Acts of Parliament. Acts of Parliament are also known as statutes or legislation. These terms all mean the same thing and will be used interchangeably throughout this unit.

Acts of Parliament may originate in various ways:

  1. party manifestos

  2. national emergency, crisis or new development


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The House of Commons

The members of the House of Commons are elected by the public, with the country being divided into constituencies and each of these returning one Member of Parliament (known as an MP). There must be a general election every five years, though an election can be called sooner by the Prime Minister. The Government of the day is generally formed by the political party which has the most MPs elected to the House of Commons. The Prime Minister will usually be the leader of the largest political pa
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2.1 The Houses of Parliament

In this unit we will be concentrating on how Acts of Parliament are made in England and Wales. Scotland and Northern Ireland have separate procedures for making legal rules, although they are largely similar. In England and Wales, Parliament consists of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The site of the Houses of Parliament is the Palace of Westminster in London. The Palace of Westminster was a royal palace and the former residence of monarchs.

The UK Parliament dates f
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1 Rule making in England and Wales

One of the most important functions of any legal system is to state the legal rules by which the society in question is to operate. Legal rules are not necessarily the only codes which prescribe social behaviour (morals and etiquette are others), but legal rules are distinct in that they constitute an official code which has the backing of state powers of enforcement and sanctions. This unit explores the major sources of legal rule making in England and Wales – the Westminster Parliament. M
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12 More information about W150 An introduction to law in contemporary Scotland

This unit has been been designed as a taster for the Open University's short course W150 An introduction to law in contemporary Scotland. Over four months the course covers a range of topics which introduce students to law making in Scotland, the structure of the Scottish court system, court procedure before moving on to look at some specific areas of law: Child Law, Employment Law, Human Rights and Unlawful Conduct.

The purpose of the course is to provide an overview of contempo
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11 How can a citizen become involved in this law making process?

As one of our constitutional duties citizens are expected to vote in Parliamentary elections. Both MSPs and MPs are elected. In voting in those elections a citizen is becoming involved in law making (even though they may not realise this).

The Scottish Parliamentary process has been designed to be as open as possible. This is reflected not only in the procedures that have been established, but also in the design of the Parliament building itself. The debating chamber, which was central
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8 Reading an Act of the Scottish Parliament

In this section we will explore what an Act of Parliament looks like, how Acts of Parliament are structured, and how you should read an Act of Parliament.

Copies of all Acts of the Scottish Parliament are kept in the National Archives of Scotland. Copies of all Acts of the UK Parliament have been kept since 1497. Most of these are kept in the House of Lords Record Office in the Victoria Tower at Westminster, and are available for public inspection on arrangement with the Clerk of the Re
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7.3.1 Stages of a Bill

  • 1 First reading: The title of a Bill is read out and copies of it are printed, but no debate takes place. There will be a vote on whether the House wishes to consider the Bill further.

  • 2 Second reading: The general principles contained in the Bill are debated by MPs. Frequently, the second reading stage is the point at which public attention becomes drawn to the proposal through press coverage, and on occasion, vociferous campa
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7.3 Procedure by which Bills become law

In order to become an Act of Parliament, a Bill will have to be passed by both the House of Commons and the House of Lords. A Bill may start in either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, with the exception of Finance Bills, which always start in the House of Commons. A Finance Bill is introduced by the Government shortly after the Budget to bring the Government's tax proposals into law.

Before the Bill can become an Act of Parliament it must undergo a number of stages.


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7.2 Preparing and drafting a Bill

A period of preparation of a Bill allows time to scrutinise evidence on the policies underlying Bills, and to consider whether Bills can be improved before they are introduced. Proper preparation of a Bill should lead to better-informed debates on Bills when they are introduced, and may save time by identifying problems at an early stage. This period of pre-legislative scrutiny allows valuable time for consideration, and therefore helps to avoid introducing laws that are unworkable. Consultat
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5.2 Further information about devolution

You might want to look at some other OpenLearn units that consider devolution:

  • DD203_2 Nationalism, self-determination and secession

  • DD203_1 The politics of devolution

  • DD200_1 A Europe of the regions?

2 What is law?

This section will look at what we mean when we refer to ‘law’. What is ‘law’, how do we know it exists and how is it defined?

The ‘law’ is rarely out of the news and is often the focus for fictional drama, whether it is a television show depicting a police investigation, or one involving solicitors and advocates. It is something that touches our lives on a daily basis, it governs what we can and cannot do, it is used to settle disputes, to punish and to govern
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6.2 Applying other people's rules

The process of interpretation is very closely related to that of application. The reason is simple – before applying a rule, the person applying it must interpret it to see whether the conduct in question is one to which the rule applies. Sometimes this will be straightforward, and sometimes not, as will be seen in Activity 7. The purpose of this activity is to provide you with an opportunity to explore the different ways in
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6.1 Introduction

We have now looked at how formal rules are formulated, and at some of the strategies that may be deployed when interpreting them. In this part we will take this one step further and explore in more detail something that we have already touched on and thought about – the application of rules. This is a really important thing to understand, since rules are designed to regulate conduct, and have to be applied to instances of the conduct with which they are concerned.

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5.3 Summary of Part D

After studying Part D you should be able to:

  • explain the difficulties of interpreting written statements;

  • explain what is meant by indeterminacy;

  • explain what is meant by interpretive strategies;

  • describe the literal approach to interpretation;

  • describe the approach to interpretation which seeks to avoid absurdity;

  • describe the approach to interpretation which looks t
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5.2.1 A literal approach

One way in which we can interpret a rule is by treating it literally. Very simply this means looking at the words which comprise the rule, and at the way in which they are put together, and applying the rule ‘as is’ to a factual situation to which it applies. An example would be: ‘Dog owners are not permitted to let their dogs off the lead in the park’. If this is applied literally, it would mean that a person who did not own a dog, but who took a friend's dog to the park, w
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5.1 Introduction

We have seen some of the difficulties that Mrs Biggs has faced when formulating a sufficiently general and sufficiently specific rule to deal with the conduct of the visitors to her garden. In Part D we take things a step further by looking at some of the difficulties which may arise when it comes to interpreting rules such as the one developed (with your help) by Mrs Biggs. In particular, we will be exploring the way in which our understanding of the language used in rules affects our interp
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4.2 Formulating rules

Activity 4 should have shown you that the language used for making rules can sometimes make them difficult to understand. Given that we can only comply with a rule if we know what it means, this is a big problem! In this part of the unit we are going to look at the process of making rules in more detail – and you are going to have the opportunity to make a rule that can be understood and which is effective in achieving what it sets out to do.

It is worth restating that rules are made
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3.4 Summary of Part B

After studying Part B you should be able to:

  • describe the relevance of policy for rule making;

  • recognise differing reactions to Ireland's ban on smoking in the workplace;

  • demonstrate/explain the implications of the rules governing Ireland's ban on smoking in the workplace.

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