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Teachers as Learners: curriculum innovation with trainee teachers
The QCA has produced a ten-minute film from a two-year collaborative project with the University of Cumbria on student teachers as agents of curriculum change, entitled 'Teachers as Learners: curriculum innovation with trainee teachers'.
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Semi-automatic control system for hydraulic shovel
A semi-automatic control system for a hydraulic shovel has been developed. Using this system, unskilled operators can operate a hydraulic shovel easily and accurately. A mathematical control model of a hydraulic shovel with a controller was constructed and a control algorithm was developed by simulation. This algorithm was applied to a hydraulic shovel and its effectiveness was evaluated. High control accuracy and high-stability performance were achieved by feedback plus feedforward control, non
Author(s): Araya, Hirokazu and Kagoshima, Masayuki

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The Medical Marketplace, Free and Unfree

The idea of consumer sovereignty was central to Mises's understanding of the market economy. According to this understanding, consumers shape the pattern of resource use and the assignment of resource rewards according to their preferences. The outputs being produced at any date, the methods of production being employed, and the rewards being given to the various owners of productivity are those
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Reflections on e-Design: The e-Studio Experience
The influence of digital media and information technology on architectural design education and practice is increasingly evident. The practice and learning of architecture is increasingly aided by and dependant on digital media. Digital technologies not only provide new production methods, but also expand our abilities to create, explore, manipulate and compose space. In contemporary design education, there is a continuous demand to deliver new skills in digital media and to rethink architectura
Author(s): Al-Qawasmi, Jamal

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4. Applications
Technology, worldwide web, infrastructure, network, architecture, global, ownership, computer, science, neutrality, telecommunications, economics, policy, TCP/IP, internet protocol, innovation, HTML, BitTorrent, peer-to-peer, file sharing, streaming, vide
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9 Summary

This unit has focused on planning a project. At this stage you may find it useful to recap on the learning objectives introduced at the beginning of the unit and to think about some of the issues associated with them.

  1. You should now be able to develop plans with relevant people to achieve the project's goals. This will involve identifying and finding ways of including the appropriate people in the project.

  2. You should be able
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8 Drawing up the implementation plan

Once the detailed planning and risk assessments have been carried out, you are ready to assemble your implementation plan. A typical implementation plan, including diagrams and charts where appropriate, will contain:

  • a description of the background to the project;

  • its goals and objectives in terms of intended outputs and/or outcomes;

  • the resource implications (budget, personnel – including any training requirements
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7.7 Planning for quality

Having considered estimating for time and for costs, the third dimension of projects – quality needs to be considered. The need to achieve a particular level of quality may mean that more time must be spent completing certain tasks or that more resources must be made available for a particular purpose. Once the time and cost estimates have been made, review them to ensure that this estimate will allow an outcome of the right quality.

Many organisations have corporate quality assurance
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7.5 Materials costs

There will be many categories of materials, supplies and consumables used in a project. Once again, the materials that are in constant use and easily and ‘freely’ available in an organisation might be overlooked in costing the project. For example, it is easy to assume that stationary will be available in much the same way as it is for day-to-day work. However, a project is a bounded activity, and if you are to understand the full cost of achieving the outcomes, you will need to know
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7.4 Equipment costs

In many projects, staff costs are the most expensive element, but there are other costs to consider, such as materials and equipment. Indeed, in some projects (for example, some military and space projects) these other costs are at least as significant as staff costs. For organisational accounting purposes, a distinction will be required between capital expenditure, or the acquisition of fixed assets, and revenue expenditure, or the incurring of expenses. The work breakdown plan and the sched
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7.3 Staff costs

The staff time and staff-related costs need to be calculated. These include salaries, taxes, holidays, overtime, training, travel and subsistence, and accommodation for the number of staff for the time they will be needed. This raises all sorts of questions about the basis on which staff are costed and the relationship of the project budgeting system to other budgets and costing systems in the organisation. The basic assumptions underlying allocation of resources need careful consideration ea
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7.2 Revenues

Projects vary in how they are eventually financed. They can be purely commercial projects from which the products are sold at market prices, and so eventually the revenues they generate are expected to cover the costs and provide an operating profit. In the meantime, development costs and working capital have to be financed from share and loan capital raised by the organisation, the cost of which will be met from the profit the project makes. At the other extreme there are projects, in both f
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7.1 Introduction

Planning a project includes preparation of financial and related projections. Frequently, these will be used to:

  • weigh up the economic feasibility of the project;

  • obtain approval from a higher authority in the organisation for the project to proceed;

  • set boundaries of delegation or empowerment in a formal budget;

  • provide the basis for accounting for project revenues and costs;

  • provide
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6.3 Identifying the critical path

The critical path describes the sequence of tasks that would enable the project to be completed in the shortest possible time. It is based on the idea that some tasks must be completed before others can begin. A critical path diagram is a useful tool for scheduling the dependencies and controlling a project. In order to identify the critical path the length of time that each task will take must be calculated.

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6.2 Gantt chart

Gantt charts show all the key stages of a project and their duration as a bar chart, with the time-scale across the top. The key stages are placed on the bar chart in sequence, starting in the top left-hand corner and ending in the bottom right-hand corner (Figure 7 – Gantt chart for directory production). A Gantt chart can be drawn quickly and easily and is often the first tool a project manager uses to provide a rough e
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6.1 Introduction

Scheduling is about deciding the time that each task will take to do and the sequence in which the tasks will be carried out. There are a number of approaches to estimating the time and effort (and, therefore, cost) required to complete a project. Some estimates may be based on past experience but, because each project is essentially unique, this alone may not be sufficient. A clearer picture can be obtained by measuring each task in terms of the content of the work, the effort required to ca
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5.3 Team structure and responsibilities

Teams have great difficulty in working effectively if they are too large to work together conveniently. Six to eight people is often considered to be about right. Where the project needs more staff to deliver all of the outcomes, the structure could consist of a number of teams, each with a team leader. In some projects there may not be a team but, instead, a number of individuals or groups making a specialist contribution at an appropriate time and a method for co-ordinating these inputs bec
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5.2 Work breakdown

A work breakdown structure enables:

  • the work of a project to be divided into ‘packages’;

  • these ‘packages’ can be further subdivided into ‘elements’;

  • these elements are then divided into individual ‘tasks’.

This structure provides a basis for estimating the time and effort required. In a large project, the work breakdown structure might allow packages of work
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5.1.1 SMART objectives

When the objectives are identified, trying to ensure that each objective is SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timebound) is good practice or at least to have considered the extent to which these conditions could be met. As in all planning, this process is continuous and as new information becomes available and as the project progresses, changes will need to be made to aspects of the objectives and to the sequences of tasks that contribut
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5.1 Introduction

One of the most difficult aspects of planning a project is estimating how long it will take to complete each key stage. An estimate might be based on:

  • the size of the tasks and the effort required to complete them;

  • the number of days that are not available for working on the project;

  • historical data from other projects, including the experience of colleagues.

Where a project has a fixed end-date (for
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