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2.4.2 Duration and frequency

The second complication associated with identifying carers is related to how much caring they do and how often they do it. This aspect came to the fore when carers were first identified in the 1985 General Household Survey, an annual statistical survey carried out by the Office of Population, Censuses and Surveys in the UK (Green, 1988). From answers to a question in the survey which asked if respondents took on ‘extra responsibilities’ for someone who was ‘sick, handicapped or elderly
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2.2 Introducing the Durrants

The Arthur and Lynne case study

We will be focusing on a single case study, about Arthur and Lynne Durrant. This enables us to explore some broad questions about care, carers and caring which might be quite boring and divorced from real life if they were presented in the abstract – as official stat
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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3.1 Conclusion

In this unit you have considered a range of responses and feelings that services users may experience during the transition into residential care, and have identified strategies that can be used to support them with this move. Passing on comprehensive information about the service user to care providers will help them to respond more effectively to the service user's needs. Being able to provide relatives and service users with information about possible placements and negotiating with provid
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1.5 Fetal alcohol syndrome

There are a range of disorders associated with maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy which are collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, FASDs. The best characterised is fetal alcohol syndrome, FAS. FAS is defined by four criteria, the first of which is excessive maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, the other three being:

  1. a characteristic pattern of minor facial abnormalities and other malformations (in particu
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2.5 The therapeutic relationship as a placebo

Mitchell and Cormack propose that the relationship aspect of a therapeutic encounter can be as important as the technical dimensions of healing (Mitchell and Cormack, 1998). CAM practitioners argue that the therapeutic relationship itself may be an important tool in healing. Critics of CAM turn this argument on its head, suggesting that CAM is, in fact, no more than a powerful form of placebo. What they generally mean is that it is not the specific treatments used that evoke a healing respons
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2.3 Mia's first birthday

It is Mia's first birthday. After a birthday tea and before her bedtime the Family sit down with their photograph albums and watch a video made around the time of her birth. The Family look back to that time and share their experiences of birth and what they noticed she could do.

Activity 3: Mia's birth

<
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an awareness of current media and policy discourses surrounding young people's physical and mental health;

  • critically analyse ideas about young people's wellbeing using a range of theoretical perspectives;

  • demonstrate an understanding of some of the ways in which young people's experience of mental health is shaped by diversity and inequality;

  • demonstrate an awareness of diffe
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References

Bruer, J. T. (1999) ‘In search of … brain-based education’, Kappa Professional Journal, Phi Delta Kappa International: http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kbru9905.htm
Catherwood, D. (2000) ‘New views on the young brain: offerings from developmental psychology to early childhood education’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, vol. 1, no. 1.
Ellers, F.,
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References

Foley, P. (2008) ‘Introduction’ in Collins, J. and Foley, P. (eds) Promoting Children's Wellbeing: Policy and Practice, Bristol, The Policy Press in association with The Open University.
Maynard, T. (2007) ‘Encounters with Forest School and Foucault: A Risky Business?’ Education 3–13, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 379–391.

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5.2 Thought and language

For Piaget the development of thought and language was dependent on underlying ‘intelligence’. Language is therefore simply a reflection of mental ability: intelligence precedes language and is independent of it.

Vygotsky (1986) however, proposed that language has two functions: inner speech, used for mental reasoning, and external speech, used for communication with other people. He suggested that these two functions arise separately. That is, before the age of about 2 years, child
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4.6 Evaluating constructivism

Piaget's theory was revolutionary in many respects. It recognised that children thought differently to adults. The view that learning is an individual and constructive process differed sharply from the prevailing climate of behaviourism when it was published. However, the experimental tasks that Piaget used to establish his theory have been subjected to criticism. Subsequent research, most notably by Donaldson (1978), has shown that under certain conditions young children are able to operate
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Let's Move!
Get students moving with this video for students for kindergarten through third grade. The exercises do not take up too much floor space and students can do the exercises at their desks. The video shows that students with limited movement can do the movements, as well. The music featured is fast-paced. (05:34)
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2.2 Classical conditioning

Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) was a Russian neurophysiologist who studied the physiology of digestion. During this research he noticed that hungry dogs would salivate at the mere sight of the attendant who brought the food. He used this seemingly minor observation to develop his theory of classical conditioning (see Box 2). Classical conditioning is the learning of an association between a reflex behaviour and a previously unrelated environmental stimulus.

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2.2 Roles within agencies, projects and organisations

The next activity is intended to widen your understanding of the variety of roles undertaken in the field of‘work with young people’.

Activity 5 Variety of job roles with young people

1 hour 0 minutes

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2.1 The diversity of roles

So far we have looked at the roles that are taken in work with young people. Now we move on to discuss roles in relation to the ‘bigger picture’ of organisations and projects that are concerned with young people.

The aim of this section is to help you do three things:

  • gain an idea of not only the diversity but also the complexity of different roles involved in working with young people

  • consider what is meant by organisatio
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1.7 Understanding Roles

Activity 3: Understanding roles

0 hours 30 minutes

Look back at the philosophical positions on work with young people described above and answer these questions:

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Biosphere 2 Unveils Landscape Evolution Observatory
The Biosphere 2 Landscape Evolution Observatory is under construction and consists of three huge landscapes inside an environmentally controlled greenhouse facility. The first of the landscapes recently was completed, and project scientists and engineers demonstrated the system and explained the plans for future experiments.
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The Piaget Demonstration: How Children Think
The Piaget Demonstration: How Children Think Al Heldt & Judy Jankowski. Recorded in 1989.
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MSU Faculty conversations: Suzanne Evans Wagner
Growing up near London's East End, assistant professor Suzanne Evans Wagner wondered why some of her friends had a Cockney accent and she didn't. Wagner's fascination with speech and linguistics evolved into education and a career.
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