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Extracting the Far West in the Nineteenth Century 3 from the course American Environmental and Cultu
American Environmental and Cultural History - Fall 2006. This course presents a history of the American environment and the ways in which different cultural groups have perceived, used, managed, and conserved it from colonial times to the present. Cultures include American Indians and European and African Americans. Natural resources development includes gathering-hunting-fishing; farming, mining, ranching, forestry, and urbanization. ...
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Creatures of Habit: A Computational System to Enhance and Illuminate the Development of Scientific T
Creatures of Habit is a computer-based microworld designed to engage middle-to-high school students in the process of scientific inquiry. The system depicts a universe of interacting programmable “creatures” whose individual behavior is guided by simple rules that may model naive psychology, physical laws, chemical affinities, and other domains. Students can create or revise creature rules and explore the resulting (and often surprising) emergent behaviors within “artificial ecosystems”;
Author(s): Pea Roy D.,Eisenberg Michael,Turbak Franklyn

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A study of the development of programming ability and thinking skills in high school students
This article reports on a year-long study of high school students learning computer programming. The study examined three issues: I) what is the impact of programming on particular mathematical and reasoning abilities?; 2) what cognitive skills or abilities best predict programming ability?; and 3) what do students actually understand about programming after two years of high school study? The results showed that even after two years of study, many students had only a rudimentary understanding o
Author(s): Kurland D. Midian,Pea Roy D.,Clement Catherine,Maw

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Children's mental models of recursive logo programs
Children who had a year of Logo programming experience were asked to think-aloud about what brief Logo recursive programs will do, and then to predict with a hand-simulation of the programs what the Logo graphics turtle will draw when the program is executed. If discrepancies arose in this last phase, children were asked to explain them. A prevaient but misguided "looping" interpretation of Logo recursion was identified, and this robust mental model persisted even in the face of contradiction be
Author(s): Kurland D. Midian,Pea Roy D.

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Integrating Human and Computer Intelligence
The thesis to be explored in this chapter is that advances in computer applications and artificial intelligence have important implications for the study of development and learning in psychology. I begin by reviewing current approaches to the use of computers as devices for solving problems. reasoning, and thinking. I then raise questions concerning the integration of computer-based intelligence with human intelligence to seme human development and the processes of education.
Author(s): Pea Roy D.

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Supporting Conceptual Awareness with Pedagogical Agents
This paper describes a series of efforts in building and conceptualizing software agents for distributed collaborative learning. The agents are referred to as pedagogical agents. We have integrated pedagogical agents within two collaborative environments, TeamWave Workplace and Future Learning Environment. The role of agents in these environments differs from past work on software agents in their function as extended awareness mechanisms, focusing on task and concept awareness (conceptual a
Author(s): Mørch Anders,Jondahl Silje,Dolonen Jan A.

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A symbolic manipulator to introduce pupils to algebra theory
Within the theoretical framework of Vygotsky's theory, the paper presents a new algebra software. The main features of the software are described and their potentialities are discussed. According to the Vygotskian theory, expressions and commands may be thought as external signs of the Algebraic theory, and as such, they may become instruments of semiotic mediation: In other terms they can be used by the teacher, in the concrete realisation of classroom activity, according to the motive of intr
Author(s): Cerulli Michele,Mariotti Maria Alessandra

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COML (Classroom Orchestration Modelling Language) and Scenarios Designer: Toolsets to Facilitate Col
In a one-to-one collaborative learning classroom supported by ubiquitous computing, teachers require tools that allow them to design of learning scenarios, and to manage and monitor the activities happening in the classroom. Our project proposes an architecture for a classroom management system and a scenarios designer tool, both based on a Classroom Orchestration Modelling Language (COML), to support these requirements. We are developing and testing this with the GroupScribbles software using a
Author(s): Niramitranon Jitti,Sharples Mike,Greenhalgh Chris

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First Version of the Dynamic Digital Artrefacts
This document is the fourth deliverable of the ReMath project and deals with the first version of the Dynamic Digital Artefacts. The document is divided in two parts; the first one is a description of the work progress for each DDA and the second part is an updated specification of each DDA.,Remath deliverable - report number D4 - 124 pages
Author(s): Nicaud Jean-François,Viudez Christophe

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Designing Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture
Assessment is an important component of formal learning, and Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA) is a well established component of most online learning. However, technical issues such as interoperability and security, and pedagogic reservations as to its effectiveness still remain barriers to the uptake of CAA. In this paper we examine a number of current assessment projects, predominantly emanating from the UK, to consider how a service oriented architecture can facilitate the implementation o
Author(s): Davies Will M.,Davis Hugh Charles

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SCORM and the Learning Grid
The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a profile of several elearning specification to ensure the reusability and interoperability of elearning content in web based Learning Management Systems (LMSs). Learning grids - learning environments built on the technology of grid services - are a promising new approach to enhance quality of elearning by overcoming the page oriented structure of the web. This paper investigates how SCORM can be used in conjunction with learning grids. Aft
Author(s): Neumann Fred,Geys Rüdiger

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Movement and interaction in semantic GRIDs: dynamic service generation for Agents in the MIC* deploy
We present in this position paper the foundations of the MIC* model and deployment environment as they have emerged in the last years, relate them to current evolutions on semantic GRID dynamic service generation, as reflected by OGSA/I and, more recently, by WSRF, and propose an integrated view with the previously proposed STROBE model for communicating agents leading to a quite simple yet very promising architecture that may include Human agents in the loop, uninspectable as most artificial ag
Author(s): Gouaich Abdelkader,Cerri Stefano A.

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Reusability of eLearning Objects in the context of Learning Grids
This paper examines the requirements of eLearning Object Metadata, in order to appropriately support pedagogic and economic goals as well as service oriented architectures like the Grid. The standard IEEE LOM is being tested against these requirements. In conclusion, it can be said that while current eLearning practices are well supported by the standard, the main insufficiencies concern a) the adequate description of ELOs that are services and not downloadable self-contained programs and b) th
Author(s): Wulf Konrad

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Theoretical Foundations for E-Learning Environments Direct to Virtual Scientific Experiments
In this work we want to put in evidence the necessity to integrate theoretical, methodological and didactical aspects with innovative e-learning systems, in order to hypothesize possible learning models able to facilitate and qualify the e-learning world. Specifically, our aim will be direct to theoretical learning models of Virtual Scientific Experiments to be implemented inside the platforms. Therefore, the result to be achieved comes from the interaction of two different "macro-environments"
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Implementing New Advanced Learning Scenarios Through GRID Technologies
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Author(s): Gaeta Matteo,Ritrovato Pierluigi,Salerno Saverio

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Studying participation networks in collaboration using mixed methods
This paper describes the application of a mixed-evaluation method, published elsewhere, to three different learning scenarios. The method defines how to combine social network analysis with qualitative and quantitative analysis in order to study participatory aspects of learning in CSCL contexts. The three case studies include a course-long, blended learning experience evaluated as the course develops; a course-long, distance learning experience evaluated at the end of the course; and a synchron
Author(s): Martinez Alejandra,Dimitriadis Yannis,Gomez-Sanche

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The Grand Canyon: Ancient Mountains
This video segment adapted from NOVA features the twisted and melted forms of the Grand Canyon's oldest rocks, the 1.7-billion-year-old Vishnu Schist.
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Interactive education: teaching and learning in the information age
This is a guest editorial to a special section of this journal which derives from the work of one of the ESRC Teaching and Learning Programme projects, InterActive Education: Teaching and Learning in the Information Age (http://www.interactiveeducation. ac.uk), whose overall aim is to investigate the ways in which new technologies can be used in educational settings to enhance learning. The project was predicated on two assumptions: first that teachers are central to learning in schools and that
Author(s): Sutherland Rosamund,Robertson Susan,John Peter

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The times they are a-changing: the subculture of music and ICT in the classroom
This paper reports findings from the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded research project InterActive Education, which focused on the ways in which new technologies can improve teaching and learning in educational settings. We draw upon data which emanates from the work of seven music teachers working in English primary and secondary schools, who collaborated with university researchers to research their classrooms. Through our analyses of video data, teacher interviews and teach
Author(s): Gall Marina,Breeze Nick

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MemoNote, un outil de gestion des connaissances personnelles pour enseignants à base d’annotation
Cet article vise à proposer un outil de gestion des connaissances personnelles (PKM) à base d’annotations, MemoNote, dédié à l’enseignant considéré comme un travailleur intellectuel. Me-moNote utilise l’activité annotation de l’enseignant pour mémoriser sa conception per-sonnelle du document en particulier aux niveaux pédagogiques et domaine, qu’il pourra réutiliser par la suite. Cet article identifie les trois dimen-sions nécessaires à l’annotation dans un tel outil de
Author(s): Azouaou Faiçal,Desmoulins Cyrille

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