Approche par transformation de modèles pour la conception d'EIAH
Ce papier concerne la conception de situations d'apprentissage dans le cadre de la formation à distance. Des travaux préalables ont été menés afin de proposer un langage, CPM (Cooperative Problem-based learning Metamodel), exploitant la richesse graphique proposé par UML (Unified Modeling Language). CPM est alors construit sous la forme d'un profil UML.Il se positionne au niveau des phases de conception en amont des EML (Educational Modeling Language). Nous présentons alors une technique
Décrire l'accompagnement des apprenants Proposition d'une extension du langage de modélisation pé
L'objectif de cet article est de proposer une modification du langage de modélisation pédagogique IMS-Learning Design en termes de description d'une activité d'accompagnement des apprenants et de la spécification des rôles des acteurs participant à cette activité. Les modifications apportées s'appuient sur un modèle d'organisation du tutorat que nous avons défini. Ce modèle a pour objectifs (1) d'organiser les tâches entre les acteurs tuteur et apprenants, (2) d'assurer auprès des a
Theory of Computation
A theoretical treatment of what can be computed and how fast it can be done. Applications to compilers, string searching, and control circuit design will be discussed. The hierarchy of finite state machines, pushdown machines, context free grammars and Turing machines will be analyzed, along with their variations. The notions of decidability, complexity theory and a complete discussion of NP-Complete problems round out the course.
This course covered the mathematical topics most directly related to computer science. Topics included: logic, relations, functions, basic set theory, countability and counting arguments, proof techniques, mathematical induction, graph theory, combinatorics, discrete probability, recursion, recurrence relations, and number theory. Emphasis will be placed on providing a context for the application of the mathematics within computer science. The analysis of algorithms requires the ability to count
Intermédiations Multicanales et Multimodales pour l'E-Formation : l'Architecture du Projet Ubi-Lear
Le projet Ubi-Learn est un projet d'infrastructure ouverte et flexible pour l'intermédiation entre les apprenants en e-Formation, dans le cadre de leurs contextes locaux d'interaction, et des services supports au processus d'apprentissage. Cette intermédiation est complexe car il y a une infinité de contextes, liés notamment à la grande variété aujourd'hui des plates-formes utilisateurs, du PC au téléphone mobile enrichi, en passant par des assistants personnels avec communications sans
La sélection collaborative de pages Web pertinentes
A l'aide d'une étude expérimentale, nous avons testé les impacts d'un dispositif informatique simple pouvant aider à la recherche collaborative de pages Web pertinente chez les étudiants. Dans l'une des conditions expérimentales, les membres d'un même groupe d'étudiants pouvaient avoir des indications quant aux pages Web déjà visitées par les autres membres de leur groupe. Plusieurs indicateurs comportementaux et de performances des utilisateurs (nombre de pages consultées, temps pou
Knowledge convergence in collaborative learning: Concepts and assessment
In collaborative learning the question has been raised as to how learners in small groups influence one another and converge or diverge with respect to knowledge. This article conceptualizes knowledge convergence and further provides measures for its assessment prior to, during, and subsequent to collaborative learning. In an exemplary study in the field of computer-supported collaborative learning with forty-eight (48) locally distant participants in 16 groups of three, we apply these measures
Computer-Supported Collaborative Video Analysis
Video can serve as a powerful medium for analyzing interactions involved in learning activities, for capturing records of teaching for uses in professional development, and for learners to construct or interact with videos expressively, but there have been many barriers to its collaborative uses. The DIVER Project is tackling core problems in advancing computer-supported collaborative video analysis. DIVER establishes a unique video platform for users to control a “virtual camera window” on
CML - The ClassSync Modeling Language.
The ClassSync Modeling Language (CML) addresses the problem of creating a controlling overlay to classroom learning activities, or e-leaming workflows. Our aim is to allow authors and teachers to generate a mapping from activity design to its implementation in a wirelessly networked classroom with ubiquitous use of handheld computers for information exchange. CML models e-learning workflows with three major components: actors, data objects, and interaction networks. Actors are the diverse perfon
Reactive Learning Objects for Distributed e-Learning Environments
We present a concept of reactive learning objects that goes away from the hydraulic view of e-learning and gives to students activity a central place. First experimentations suggest that this concept should be enlarged to include distributed computation, distributed storage and Web services.
Towards a Generic Service Oriented Framework for Integrated User Management of Virtual Communities
A central Service layer for the European eLearning Grid Infrastructure (ELeGI) is the one for the management of members and the provision of collaborational services (Virtual Community Services). Because it is a lot of effort to totally newly (re-)write the collaboration services like e.g. a videoconferencing service, it is much more desirable to take existing applications and just to wrap them with a Web Service interface to programmatically access the existing functionality relevant to user m
The impact of simulator-based instruction on the diagramming of the interaction of light and matter
We examine the conceptual development resulting from an instructional experiment with an interactive learning environment in geometrical optics for introductory high school physics. How did teaching-learning processes come to change the ways in which students depicted various everyday optical situations in paper and pencil graphical representations? We view conceptual development as a process resulting in part from increasingly aligning one's practices to a target community by means of participa
Learning Scientific Concepts Through Material and Social Activities: Conversational Analysis Meets C
The number of analyses of cognitive activity situated in a material and social world has increased. It has been particularly challenging to the theoretician and researcher to make the bridge from macrosocial theories of cultural learning to microanalytic details of situated human activities for learning in specific subject domains. The ontogenesis of conceptual change in scientific thinking provides a central case for examining this problem. A sociocultural framework informed by studies of conve
Augmenting the Discourse of Learning with Computer-Based Learning Environments
Computer tools for learning are often thought of as providing practice in working with symbolic representations. We exemplify a different perspective in which the technology augments the kinds of learning conversations that can take place. Research from the Optics Dynagrams Project illusmates contributions from this perspective. I will describe pre-intervention learning environment characteristics and student learning, our design strategy for new activities and technologies to address problems w
The Collaborative Visualization Project: Shared-technology learning environments for science learnin
Project-enhanced science learning (PESL) provides students with opportunities for "cognitive apprenticeships" in authentic scientific inquiry using computers for data-collection and analysis. Student teams work on projects with teacher guidance to develop and apply their understanding of science concepts and skills. We are applying advanced computing and communications technologies to augment and transform PESL at-a-distance (beyond the boundaries of the individual school), which is limited toda
Synthesizing instructional technologies and educational culture: exploring cognition and metacogniti
This research was initiated to examine instructional technologies and educational cultures in relation to identified cognitive and metacognitive strategies uses in school tasks. The project involved activities from the social studies curricula that were presented through two new software programs intended to support the development of problem-solving and reasoning strategies - IDEA [Interactive Decision Envisioning Aid, Pea (76)] Notecards (34) - and through instructional approaches bases upon "
Extracting the Far West in the Nineteenth Century 3 from the course American Environmental and Cultu
American Environmental and Cultural History - Fall 2006. This course presents a history of the American environment and the ways in which different cultural groups have perceived, used, managed, and conserved it from colonial times to the present. Cultures include American Indians and European and African Americans. Natural resources development includes gathering-hunting-fishing; farming, mining, ranching, forestry, and urbanization. ...
Creatures of Habit: A Computational System to Enhance and Illuminate the Development of Scientific T
Creatures of Habit is a computer-based microworld designed to engage middle-to-high school students in the process of scientific inquiry. The system depicts a universe of interacting programmable “creatures” whose individual behavior is guided by simple rules that may model naive psychology, physical laws, chemical affinities, and other domains. Students can create or revise creature rules and explore the resulting (and often surprising) emergent behaviors within “artificial ecosystems”;
A study of the development of programming ability and thinking skills in high school students
This article reports on a year-long study of high school students learning computer programming. The study examined three issues: I) what is the impact of programming on particular mathematical and reasoning abilities?; 2) what cognitive skills or abilities best predict programming ability?; and 3) what do students actually understand about programming after two years of high school study? The results showed that even after two years of study, many students had only a rudimentary understanding o
Children's mental models of recursive logo programs
Children who had a year of Logo programming experience were asked to think-aloud about what brief Logo recursive programs will do, and then to predict with a hand-simulation of the programs what the Logo graphics turtle will draw when the program is executed. If discrepancies arose in this last phase, children were asked to explain them. A prevaient but misguided "looping" interpretation of Logo recursion was identified, and this robust mental model persisted even in the face of contradiction be