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3.2 Human beings, data, signs and symbols

We live in a sea of sensation: sight, sound, touch, taste, smell and balance (really a sense of our bodies in three-dimensional space). These sensations, and our ability mentally to process, and then react to and communicate them, are vital to our survival. What we perceive with our senses we call the most primitive form of data: perceptual data.

However, as Example 1 showed, human beings don't just react instinctively; they respond reflectively, using thoug
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4.4.5 Measurable

It is also useful to word your goal in a way that allows you to monitor progress towards your goal. Sometimes this is straightforward – you can ‘measure’ achievement directly. For example, you may be aiming to get a job and you can easily tell whether or not you have achieved this.

Sometimes, though, with the ‘real world’ skills we have talked about in earlier sections, it is not so straightforward. How can you ‘measure’, for example, developments in your communication ski
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4.4.4 Specific

You need to be quite clear what you are setting out to do. If you are not clear, your goal may be open to different interpretations and you may become unsure of what you intended. For example, suppose you chose a goal like ‘to get better at giving people feedback’. This could be interpreted in at least two ways:

  1. To improve your self-confidence about giving feedback, so that you no longer get nervous about having to do i
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7.4.1 The introduction of a report

The introduction of a report has a very specific role, and the range of approaches you may take is fairly limited. The function of such an introduction is to:

  • outline the aim of the investigation or experiment: list the objectives

  • provide background information in order to clarify why the investigation or experiment was undertaken.


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Introduction

One of the most fascinating and productive ways of using your computer for study is connecting to the internet to access the extensive amount of information available on the web. Such a diverse range of material brings its own challenges.

It's therefore useful to know how to search effectively. Have a look at our Web Guide (accessed 8 November 2006).

The BBC's Webwise online course (accessed 8 November 2006) will also help you become a confident web user.

This
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4.10 Nobody is saying anything

A conference can be quite a fragile thing. If no one says anything for a while, it becomes harder and harder to break the silence, and no one feels like being the first to contribute. There can be a downward spiral until the conference becomes completely dormant.

Someone needs to be brave and break the spiral as soon as they realise what is happening. Here are some suggestions for things you can do at this point:

  • Ask a question that prompts a re
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4.9 When there's too much to do

This can be a real problem in large conferences. If, for whatever reason, you join a conference later than the other participants, or are unable to be involved for a while, the prospect of joining in can be a bit daunting. There will be lots of messages you haven't read and you may feel that everyone else knows each other.

The main thing to remember is that everyone will be pleased to ‘see’ you when you do join in, and will be helpful and supportive. Here are some strategies you can
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4.8 Not everyone is participating

It can be annoying if there are some people in your tutor group who don't participate in discussions. You may feel that this is unfair, or that you are doing more than your fair share of the work.

There's often a minority of people who don't join in at all, for a variety of reasons – pressure of personal circumstances, illness, shyness, or deliberate decision. And different people may be at different stages in the course. A benefit of studying online is that you can fit your studying
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Make your conference work

You can make a big difference to the effectiveness of any conference, and to your tutor group conference in particular.

We are going to discuss in turn the four main ways that you can help a conference work well:

  • get involved;

  • help people to get to know you;

  • construct clear messages;

  • take some responsibility.

To get the most out of conferencing on your course, get involved
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The benefits of conferencing

There are a number of reasons why you should put time and effort into conferencing:

  • You get support when you need it (in exchange for giving support to others).

  • You have a richer vein of experience to draw on, because you can pool examples, references and ideas.

  • A group can often produce better work than an individual. One person might put forward a thought or idea, often not completely formed or finished. Someone els
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4.2 Why online conferencing is useful

Online conferencing can make a big difference by making you feel part of the learning community, connecting to other students and keeping you motivated. It's a help to know that other people are struggling with the same issues as you, and that you can share problems and ideas at any time of day or night.

It's also a good way for students to work together, rather than individually. Group working is becoming an important element of many courses, partly because it is increasingly the way t
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Introduction

As a student, you may have access to online conferencing. What can you do to help conferencing work well?

This section discusses the reasons why online conferencing is useful, its benefits, how to make online conferencing work for you, and some of the typical problems and solutions relating to it.

“Conferencing gives me the chance to think about what I'm going to say – so I find it much easier to make a w
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this Unit:

Text
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Introducing Rhodes finalist Giuseppe Del Gobbo
Rhodes Scholarship finalist Giuseppe Del Gobbo talks about why he chose engineering, and why it's important to be a well-rounded student.
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Afval sorteren : Aanvullende werkblaadjes bij Wai Not oefening
afval.jpg

Dit is een document dat gebruikt kan worden als aanvulling op de inhoud van de Wai-Not website. Met foto's en korte zinnen leer je de basis van het sorteren van afval in GFT, PMD, papier en karton, glas en rest.


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6.2 Catalytic mechanisms

In general terms, the following mechanisms operate at the active site of an enzyme to bring about the conversion of substrate to product:

  1. Charged groups at the enzyme active site alter the distribution of electrons in the substrate. By affecting the electron distributions in key atoms in the substrate, the enzyme can destabilise existing bonds and favour the formation of new bonds. This principle is illustrated below, using as an example the hydrolysis
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6.1 Introduction

Among those proteins of known function, the majority are enzymes. Enzymes act as catalysts, i.e. they increase the rates of reactions, making and breaking bonds, without themselves undergoing any permanent change. They are highly specific for particular reactions and are excellent examples of how a protein's function is entirely dependent on its structure.

First of all, a protein must bind its substrate (or substrates) in a specific fashion; it must then convert the substrate(s) into th
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • describe the characteristics of light emitted by stars, and hence the information of cosmological interest that can be deduced from it;

  • distinguish between true and false statements relevant to the distribution and motion of stars within galaxies, and of galaxies within clusters and superclusters;

  • outline the methods used for estimating the distances to stars and to galaxies;

  • explain and
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Introduction

In this unit, we present the three main lines of experimental evidence pointing to the big bang origin of the Universe: (i) the recession of the galaxies; (ii) the microwave remnant of the early fireball; and (iii) the comparison between the calculated primordial nuclear abundances and the present-day composition of matter in the Universe.

A data sheet of useful information is provided as a pdf for your use. You may wish to print out a copy to keep handy as you progress through the unit
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Acknowledgements

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons licence). See Terms and Conditions.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following for permission to reproduce:

Figure 1a: Neil Borden/Science Photo Library; Figure: 1b NOAA/Science Photo Library; Figure 1c: Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy/Science Photo Library; Figure 11: Science Photo Library; Figure 14: Science Museum.


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