The Importance of an Enhanced Problem Representation: On the Role of Elaborations in Physics Problem
This study of physics problem-solving identifies reasoning mechanisms that enable the problem-solver to achieve the transformation to a physics structure of the problem situation. Elaboration is explored as a mechanism in fulfilling this transformation by providing beginning problem-solvers with elaborations that they failed to infer. A card sorting experiment was employed in which two versions of physics problem descriptions had to be sorted. A comparison is made between proficient and weak stu
Development of an electronic course based on the i*teach methodology with the use of the ims learnin
The paper is a demonstration of the use of active methods of learning and IMS Learning design (IMS LD) specification for the development of portable and reusable electronic course. It demonstrates how Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can enhance the process of teacher training, and how this can be used for Lifelong Competence Development of teachers. The paper shows how units of learning developed according to the IMS LD specification can integrate the contemporary active methods
Dunes: Process and Form
This site provides Flash animations that illustrate form variations in sand dunes. Visualizations, photographs and supporting text demonstrate the conditions necessary to produce various dune shapes, including longitudinal, crescent, star, parabolic and transverse dunes. These resources may be integrated into lectures, labs or other activities.
A Personal Account of Efforts to End School Segregation in a Southern School System
The Brown Decision, whose 50th Anniversary was observed in 2004, was a landmark case that ended the doctrine of separate but equal. During the observation of the anniversary, many pundits reflected on the political, social, and historical significance of Brown. This article takes a different approach in reflecting on the importance of Brown. A historical context is provided that reveals the conditions that existed in the south prior to and after the Brown Decision. The author tells the poignant
Approaching Sex Through Archaeology
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A'Planting We Will Go
This lesson is based on the book, "The Tiny Seed", by Eric Carle. This story will be used to introduce the children to the concept that seeds change and grow into plants when conditions in the environment including temperature, light, water and soil are appropriate. Children will learn that plants produce seeds that can become new plants. Through extended activities, the children will experience first-hand the germination of seeds. They will become familiar with the parts of a plant and learn ho
Anatomy of the heart
A lesson plan for Grade 7 English Language Development and Science. Students develop their knowledge of the circulatory system by studying the structure and function of the heart and its vessels.
Along the Trail of Tears
A part of history is often forgot when teaching younger students. This is the relocation of the Cherokee Indians when the white settlers wanted their property. The US Government moved whole groups of Indians under harsh conditions. This trip became known as the Trail of Tears. Using this as a background students will explore and experiment with persuasive writing as they try to express the position of Cherokee leaders.
Which part of your brain controls your ability to swallow? Your instinct to survive? And how do all the brain's parts function cooperatively? Find out with this interactive feature from the NOVA: "Coma" Web site.
"A Rale Boost to Lithrachoor": A Humorist Lampoons Libraries
The founders of the great libraries of the 19th century were often ambivalent about whether their goal was to disseminate or conserve knowledge. They were also uncertain about the intended audience. John Cotton Dana of the Newark Public Library was atypical in his populist stance that "it is a proper function of a library to amuse." He argued that a "shallow mind" was better than an "empty one." Other librarians preferred to see themselves as cultivators of public taste and their buildings as up
A Pledge of Allegiance: Joining the Grange
When the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry was first organized in Minnesota in December 1867, its goals were primarily social and educational. The organization spread rapidly throughout the agricultural Midwest, attracting more than 850,000 members by 1875. The Grange's purpose also expanded--it experimented (unsuccessfully) with cooperatives, and, angered by hard times, tight money, and high railroad shipping rates, moved into politics. Members elected sympathetic state legislators wh
A map of servitude.
The back of a Louisiana slave named Gordon, photographed in 1863 after he escaped to the Union forces. Whipping was the most common form of punishment on plantations, and slaveowners and overseers whipped slaves with frightening regularity. Slaves could be whipped for almost any pretext: for "not picking cotton," "or not picking as well as he can," for picking "very trashy cotton," and so forth. One overseer gave twelve lashes to eight women for "hoeing bad corn." While punishments were often wo
"A Decent Home . . . for Every American Family": Postwar Housing Shortage Victims Testify before Con
New home construction declined dramatically during the Great Depression as rents rose, reaching an all-time high in 1940. A persistent housing shortage continuing into the early 1950s forced families to separate and apartment dwellers to "double-up." The housing reform movement, largely ineffectual in the 1920s and 1930s, gathered strength in the postwar period. Labor and veteran groups pressured Congress and the White House to enact a comprehensive housing policy with money for public housing a
A Cowboy's Work is Never Done: George Martin
The cowboy of Western mythology rode the range during the heyday of the long cattle drives in the l860s and 1870s. Despite the individualism emphasized in myth, most cowhands were employees of Eastern and European capitalists who raised cattle as a corporate enterprise to serve a growing appetite for beef in the U.S. Cowboys were overworked hired hands who rode in freezing wind and rain or roasted in the Texas sun; searched for lost cattle; mended fences; ate monotonous and bad food; and suffere
"A condition we can ill afford": Debating the Equal Pay Act of 1963
Recommendations by the National War Labor Board during World War II to pay male and female workers equal wages yielded few changes in the gender wage gap. Women continued to receive less money for comparable work, and into the 1960s want ads characterized jobs as "male" or "female" with resulting salary differences based on gender. The Equal Pay Act (EPA) made it illegal to pay men and women differently for similar work. Although the EPA was passed in 1963, it was debated in workplaces and court
"A Complex Pattern of Past and Present Discrimination": Academics React to the Kerner Report
President Lyndon Johnson formed an 11-member National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders in July 1967 to explain the riots that plagued cities each summer since 1964 and to provide recommendations for the future. The Commission's 1968 report, informally known as the Kerner Report, concluded that the nation was "moving toward two societies, one black, one white--separate and unequal." Unless conditions were remedied, the Commission warned, the country faced a "system of 'apartheid'" in its ma
Is There a Policy for Networked Learning?
Networked learning is part of an emergent networked society. As such networked learning forms part of a wider debate concerning the nature of social processes, power and culture and their relationships with technology. The literature surrounding networked learning still reflects a technological determinist view. This paper takes issue with this view of the relationship between technology and social forms. The context of higher education has been changing alongside the introduction of new technol
Interface boundary between h-BN and Si3N4 grains
The micrograph shows a regularly stepped interface boundary between h-BN (precipitate) and Si3N4 grains (within a silicon nitride particulate-reinforced silicon carbide composite). The occurrence of BN inclusions results from the introduction of colloidal BN into the hot isostatic pressing process. They are formed from B2O3 present as a thin surface film on the BN particles in the barrier layer. B2O3 will be molten during the pressing process and will diffuse rapidly into the powder compact and
Daisyworld Stella Activity
Daisyworld model is a very simple planet that has only two species of life on its surface - white and black daisies, and bare ground. Daisyworld is a good example of homeostasis and was first proposed by James Lovelock as a plausible example of his Gaia hypothesis. The Daisyworld activity helps students build a Stella model of Daisyworld from scratch. After constructing the model they perform guided experiments to explore the behavior of Daisyworld to changes in model parameters and assumptions.
The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings of primary paleoclimatic proxy data. The site includes reconstructions of past temperature, precipitation, vegetation, streamflow, sea surface temperature, and other climatic or climate-dependent conditions. Users can access air temperature, hydroclimate, circulation and ocean data. This is a very comprehensive archive of paleoclima