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4.1 Introduction
Your heart beats around 100,000 times every day and, in that time, pumps about 23,000 litres of blood around your body. But what happens when it doesn’t work as well as it should? This unit explains what happens in cardiovascular disease, when the heart’s performance is affected, how the normal function of blood vessels is impaired, and what treatments are available. Whether you are a patient, relative, friend or healthcare professional, you will find the unit interesting.
Author(s): The Open University

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3.2.1 Fats
Your heart beats around 100,000 times every day and, in that time, pumps about 23,000 litres of blood around your body. But what happens when it doesn’t work as well as it should? This unit explains what happens in cardiovascular disease, when the heart’s performance is affected, how the normal function of blood vessels is impaired, and what treatments are available. Whether you are a patient, relative, friend or healthcare professional, you will find the unit interesting.
Author(s): The Open University

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3.2 Diabetes as a risk factor
Your heart beats around 100,000 times every day and, in that time, pumps about 23,000 litres of blood around your body. But what happens when it doesn’t work as well as it should? This unit explains what happens in cardiovascular disease, when the heart’s performance is affected, how the normal function of blood vessels is impaired, and what treatments are available. Whether you are a patient, relative, friend or healthcare professional, you will find the unit interesting.
Author(s): The Open University

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3.1 Lifestyle choices
Your heart beats around 100,000 times every day and, in that time, pumps about 23,000 litres of blood around your body. But what happens when it doesn’t work as well as it should? This unit explains what happens in cardiovascular disease, when the heart’s performance is affected, how the normal function of blood vessels is impaired, and what treatments are available. Whether you are a patient, relative, friend or healthcare professional, you will find the unit interesting.
Author(s): The Open University

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2.1 Using medical terminology: building a glossary
Your heart beats around 100,000 times every day and, in that time, pumps about 23,000 litres of blood around your body. But what happens when it doesn’t work as well as it should? This unit explains what happens in cardiovascular disease, when the heart’s performance is affected, how the normal function of blood vessels is impaired, and what treatments are available. Whether you are a patient, relative, friend or healthcare professional, you will find the unit interesting.
Author(s): The Open University

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1.4 Decline of cardiovascular diseases in Western society?
Your heart beats around 100,000 times every day and, in that time, pumps about 23,000 litres of blood around your body. But what happens when it doesn’t work as well as it should? This unit explains what happens in cardiovascular disease, when the heart’s performance is affected, how the normal function of blood vessels is impaired, and what treatments are available. Whether you are a patient, relative, friend or healthcare professional, you will find the unit interesting.
Author(s): The Open University

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1.2 Broad defintions of cardiovascular diseases
Your heart beats around 100,000 times every day and, in that time, pumps about 23,000 litres of blood around your body. But what happens when it doesn’t work as well as it should? This unit explains what happens in cardiovascular disease, when the heart’s performance is affected, how the normal function of blood vessels is impaired, and what treatments are available. Whether you are a patient, relative, friend or healthcare professional, you will find the unit interesting.
Author(s): The Open University

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1.1 A simple introduction
Your heart beats around 100,000 times every day and, in that time, pumps about 23,000 litres of blood around your body. But what happens when it doesn’t work as well as it should? This unit explains what happens in cardiovascular disease, when the heart’s performance is affected, how the normal function of blood vessels is impaired, and what treatments are available. Whether you are a patient, relative, friend or healthcare professional, you will find the unit interesting.
Author(s): The Open University

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Activity answers

Study Note: As outlined in the text I have not provided answers to all Activities. This is for two reasons:

  1. For some activities only you can devise the answer and any I gave would be distracting or unhelpful.

  2. For others in-text answers are given.

4 Engineering with proteins

What are the prospects for designing and making new proteins for specific purposes? The technology exists to build polypeptide chains unit by unit in a test tube, but this is time-consuming and expensive. Often a more practical approach is to find ways of working with nature to produce useful substances in a form that we can use. This might involve extracting a naturally occurring protein and chemically modifying it in some way, or using genetic engineering to produce a particular protein in
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3.1 Protein diversity

Of course, our bodies can't just be made up of squidgy bubbles of phospholipid, or we would collapse in a heap on the floor! Stiffer frameworks, both inside and outside the cells, also exist and help to define shape and add strength. These frameworks are formed largely from structural proteins, a class of polymeric materials that form fibres and filaments to provide mechanical support for cells and tissues. Structural proteins are made inside cells but are often then moved into the spa
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1 The Case Study materials

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8 Drawing up the implementation plan

Once the detailed planning and risk assessments have been carried out, you are ready to assemble your implementation plan. A typical implementation plan, including diagrams and charts where appropriate, will contain:

  • a description of the background to the project;

  • its goals and objectives in terms of intended outputs and/or outcomes;

  • the resource implications (budget, personnel – including any training requirements
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7.7 Planning for quality

Having considered estimating for time and for costs, the third dimension of projects – quality needs to be considered. The need to achieve a particular level of quality may mean that more time must be spent completing certain tasks or that more resources must be made available for a particular purpose. Once the time and cost estimates have been made, review them to ensure that this estimate will allow an outcome of the right quality.

Many organisations have corporate quality assurance
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7.5 Materials costs

There will be many categories of materials, supplies and consumables used in a project. Once again, the materials that are in constant use and easily and ‘freely’ available in an organisation might be overlooked in costing the project. For example, it is easy to assume that stationary will be available in much the same way as it is for day-to-day work. However, a project is a bounded activity, and if you are to understand the full cost of achieving the outcomes, you will need to know
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5.1.1 SMART objectives

When the objectives are identified, trying to ensure that each objective is SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timebound) is good practice or at least to have considered the extent to which these conditions could be met. As in all planning, this process is continuous and as new information becomes available and as the project progresses, changes will need to be made to aspects of the objectives and to the sequences of tasks that contribut
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5.1 Introduction

One of the most difficult aspects of planning a project is estimating how long it will take to complete each key stage. An estimate might be based on:

  • the size of the tasks and the effort required to complete them;

  • the number of days that are not available for working on the project;

  • historical data from other projects, including the experience of colleagues.

Where a project has a fixed end-date (for
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4.3 Industrial dynamics: knowledge and network industries

This final subsection introduces two more concepts that develop further our analysis of the dynamics of industrial structure, with particular reference to the ‘new economy’ industries. A dynamic approach to industrial change places considerable emphasis on innovation and learning, seeing firms as actively searching out innovative products and processes and learning how to produce and sell them. Some of the novelty of the new economy is reflected in the concepts used in trying to unde
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4.2.1 Figure 9a: A selection of 35 mm SLR film cameras

Figure 9a
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Copyright © IPC Media Ltd
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4.1 Introduction

This section will explore the interaction of technology and costs with market demand in shaping industrial structure throughout the industry life cycle. Many industries begin as a numerous and turbulent group of firms jostling for position, experimenting with new and idiosyncratic products, and turn into a much smaller, more stable number of firms, making standardised products by routine methods. In this section we add a rather different view of firms to that developed in Author(s): No creator set

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