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After completing this unit you may wish to study another OpenLearn Study Unit or find out more about this topic. Here are some suggestions:

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7.4 Religion: true or false?

I noted earlier that differences between the truth claims made by religions has led those who practise Religious Studies to avoid premature judgements when dealing with questions relating to the truth and value of particular religions. By seeming to by-pass truth claims, you may feel that what I have been describing as Religious Studies avoids what many would regard as the purpose of religion – to deal in truths. This is a difficult area to cover briefly, but let me at least try to explain
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1.4 Video follow-up

Did the programme add to your factual knowledge? You might like to pursue the question of whether Sunday should be preserved on religious grounds or as a day of common rest for purely social and recreational reasons, or whether provision should be made both to preserve Sunday as a Christian day of worship and to allow members of other faiths rights to take time off work or school on other days of the week to perform worship and to celebrate their own festivals. You might want to test your res
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Riding the 'earning horse': Indian Railways
Indian Railways is the world’s largest employer and one of the biggest and busiest rail networks in the world, carrying some 17 million people and more than one million tonnes of freight daily. It was, however, until very recently, a loss-making organisation, which was heading for bankruptcy. Starting his term in 2004 with a budget of just $200 million with which to save the national institution, India’s Minister of Railways Lalu Prasad engineered a dramatic turnaround. Last year, Indian Railw
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David (1951) - extract
The poet D.R. Griffiths (1882-1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, takes young schoolboy Ifor on a walk past the entrance to Ammanford's old mine and reminisces about conditions there. Paul Dickson's semi-dramatised biopic, with Griffiths essentially playing himself, is still regarded to this day as one of the finest of all Welsh films. The complete film is one of 32 included in the four-disc DVD box 'Shadows of Progress: Documentary Film in Post-War Britain 1951-1977' - http://fil
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Photographers@Google: Rick Sammon
Join Rick Sammon for thoughts and musings on lighting, HDR, and his life as a Canon "Painter of Light." How to capture and control light to make the best digital photographs. Light is the essence of photography. Follow master photographer Rick Sammon at dawn in Kenya or nighttime in Miami as he demonstrates how to achieve the best composition with the available light, which camera settings are best suited to existing conditions, and how to obtain the best exposures in challenging situations. Sa
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1.11 Facilities and the visitor experience

The quality of any visitor experience is dependent on a number of variables. These include signposting to the tourist attraction, car parking, catering, toilet facilities and overall interpretation.

The lack of adequate parking, especially on public holidays, was something of a problem in the past, there being no parking on the site itself. To overcome this problem, the National Trust leased part of a nearby hotel’s car park, but there were complaints that visitors to the waterfalls w
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1.10 Other considerations

While visitors to Aberdulais Falls seem genuinely to enjoy the experience, there is a possibility that only when they arrive at the site do they realise it is primarily an industrial site, with an attractive waterfall. There is no mention in the Aberdulais Falls title of it being an industrial site. Even the National Trust Handbook and website are a little ambiguous, using the phrase ‘Famous waterfalls and fascinating industrial site’ in its literature. Clearly not all visitors are m
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1.6 Visitor numbers

The National Trust has actively sought to encourage visitors with a wide range of interests to the site, and to broaden the appeal of the site as much as possible:

  • displays include interpretation panels devoted to the geology, flora and fauna of the site

  • computer interactive displays have been used to expand the information base

  • guided tours are run, and information sheets and visitor packs have been produced


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1.4 The economics of maintaining a heritage site

The National Trust operates within a complex web of funding. This comes from annual membership fees and from visitor receipts at individual sites. Each National Trust property is responsible for raising the income necessary to fund its own conservation activities and further development (although a large minority of sites cannot cover their costs). Properties raise this income through visitors charges and from catering, shop sales, etc. Failure to raise sufficient income can lead to job losse
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1.3 Stages of development

As a result of the consultation and decision-making process, it was decided, as a primary objective, to undertake a systematic survey of the site in order to uncover and understand the industrial archaeology of Aberdulais Falls. This involved removing tons of rubbish, infill and vegetation, and examining in detail the archaeological remains discovered.

During this process, no evidence from the sixteenth-century copper smelting works was uncovered, and it is assumed that this lies beneat
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1.1 Background

Aberdulais Falls is under the control of the National Trust. It is set in an area of outstanding natural beauty that has attracted artists for centuries (Turner visited the ten-metre high waterfall in 1796). Aberdulais Falls also has a four-hundred-year history of industrial use, due to the opportunities it provides for water power. The industrial history of Aberdulais Falls goes back to 1584, when the availability of water power and fuel led to copper ore from Cornwall being smelted there. C
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5.6 Other stanza lengths

Other stanza lengths include the sestet, and the octave.

We've looked at how poems utilise line-breaks and stanzas to evoke a landscape, develop ideas and to present different elements, the juxtaposition of which suggests an argument. We've looked at poems which are about themselves – about line-breaks or poetry itself – and found that they are also about something else. Poetry doesn't always move in a linear fashion, following a single idea or event. It can jum
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5.5 Quatrains

The following poem is comprised of four quatrains.

Desert places

Snow falling and night falling fast, oh, fast

In a field I looked into going past,

And the ground almost covered smooth in snow,

But a few weeds and stubble showing last.

The woods around it have it – it is theirs.

All animals are smothered in their lairs.

I am too absent-spirited
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7.2 Asides

An aside is a shorter speech, maybe only a few words, spoken sotto voce to the audience. It is presumed that the other characters on stage cannot hear what is being said, unless the aside is between two characters. Unlike the soliloquy, which largely died out with the decline of poetic drama, the aside is a convention that was widely used until the rise of naturalistic drama early in the twentieth century. Nevertheless, it is still employed in those conventional dramatic genres, pantom
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2.5.1 The reductionist perspective

Although theology had been thought of as ultimate knowledge, in post-Enlightenment thought, religion came to be seen by many in the West as a hindrance to progress and the advancement of human knowledge. Some came to believe that a rational and scientific way of looking at the world, unconstrained by religious belief and ‘superstition’, would lead to religion becoming redundant.

In the nineteenth century, this idea was boosted by Darwinian theories of evolution. Charles Darwin
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1.6 Sources of authority

A very useful way of gaining insight into a religion and seeing how it works is to examine its sources of authority: for example, whether authority is vested in scriptures, in religious specialists, in tradition, in personal experience or a combination of these. Even in traditions where there is some agreement on what counts as an authoritative text, there are still contested issues of how that text is to be interpreted, by whom, with what degree of literalness and in what context. Similarly,
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1.1 What are the issues?

Some themes recur when we start to think about religion. These include issues of continuity and change, representation, differing perspectives, authority, community and identity. In this unit we start to consider some of them in detail.

The full list of themes and issues considered in this section are:

  • Continuity and change

  • Representation

  • The Victoria and Albert Museum 'Sacred Spaces' exhibition of 2000


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • have an awareness of key themes and debates in the field of religious studies;

  • have an understanding that religions have different, and sometimes contrasting, ways to present their beliefs and practices, and that the beliefs and practices of one religion are represented differently by others;

  • have an awareness that different media are used to represent and present religions.

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2.3 Marketing department marketing

It is common practice for an entire organisation's marketing activities, such as advertising, sales and market research, to be grouped together in a marketing department. The department's function is to create marketing plan activities that are designed to increase the customer's understanding of existing products and services. The marketing director manages all specialisms. Marketing is seen as ‘what the marketing department does’.

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