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Regional courts as a substitute for the domestic rule of law: The Campbell case before the SADC Trib
Erika de Wet (University of Pretoria) delivers a lecture concerning Mike Campbell and the land reform program in Zimbabwe. Delivered as part of the Anglo-­German 'State of the State' Fellowship Programme.
Author(s): Erika de Wet

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GCWS- Keynote Panel
March 13, 2011 - A keynote panel by: * Gia Barboza - Assistant Professor, African American Studies, Northeastern University * Sharon Reilly - Executive Director, The Women's Lunch Place, Boston * Karen Tei Yamashita - Professor, Literature, University of California, Santa Cruz Panelists: Andi Sutton, Lai Ying Yu
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The Big Society and the Good Society: rethinking the place of the state in British society
David Cameron has championed the 'big society' as his big idea for government; Ed Miliband has countered with the 'good society'. Two of the thinkers behind these concepts debate what is at stake in rethinking the role of the state in contemporary Britain. Maurice Glasman was raised to Baron Glasman of Stoke Newington and of Stamford Hill in 2011. Jesse Norman is the MP for Hereford and South Herefordshire and author of The Big Society.
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Why Study Icons with Dr Mary Cunningham
Icons -- religious images from the eastern Churches -- are far more than religious images as seen in western churches: they enable an encounter between the observer and the mystery. In this video, Mary Cunningham, an expert on Orthodoxy, introduces them.
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Clean Energy Innovation Reception
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3.3.4 Report stage

A Bill that has been amended in committee stage is reviewed by the House in which it started. The amendments will be debated in the House and accepted or rejected. Further amendments may also be added.

3.3.1 First reading

The title of a Bill is read out and copies of it are printed but no debate takes place. There will be a vote on whether the House wishes to consider the Bill further.

3.1 Types of Bill

2.7 (iii) Royal Commissions

Royal Commissions occasionally report to Parliament with recommendations for legislation which may be taken up as part of the Government's legislative programme. Royal Commissions are advisory committees established by the Government – though formally appointed by the Crown, hence the ‘Royal’ – to investigate any subject the Government sees fit to refer to one. They are often used for non-party political issues, or for issues that a Government wishes to be seen as addressing in a
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(ii) National emergency, crisis or new development

Legislation may be passed because of some national emergency or crisis which emerges during the Government's period in office. For example, the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 was introduced to respond to the new situation arising from the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on 11 September 2001. The aim of the 2001 Act was to cut off terrorist funding, ensure that Government departments and agencies have the power to collect and share information required for countering
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2.3 The House of Lords

Originally the members of the House of Lords comprised those who had inherited a title (known as hereditary peers), senior judges who sat as Law Lords, and the most senior bishops in the country. During the twentieth century the awarding of a title for life (known as a life peerage) became more common. The Prime Minister nominated people who should receive a title for their lifetime only. In this way, people who had served the country and were thought to be suitable members of t
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10 Subordinate legislation

The time available to committees and the Scottish Parliament is limited. The Parliament sits on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. Committees will normally meet on a Tuesday or Wednesday (occasionally Monday). This means that it may not be possible to hear all detailed aspects of a particular area of legislation quickly. A system, similar to the one used in the UK Parliament, has therefore been developed to allow for the creation of subordinate legislation.

An Act of Parliament is refe
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9 Where do the ideas for an Act of Parliament come from?

Ideas for an Act of Parliament can come from many sources. You have explored the different types of Bills that exist, and been introduced to the idea that laws need to respond to social and political change. The list that follows is not exhaustive, but is intended to provide an illustration of the range of bodies interested in law and changes in the law.

Political party manifestos

Party manifestos and pre-election promises are influenced by what politicians believe the publ
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8 Reading an Act of the Scottish Parliament

In this section we will explore what an Act of Parliament looks like, how Acts of Parliament are structured, and how you should read an Act of Parliament.

Copies of all Acts of the Scottish Parliament are kept in the National Archives of Scotland. Copies of all Acts of the UK Parliament have been kept since 1497. Most of these are kept in the House of Lords Record Office in the Victoria Tower at Westminster, and are available for public inspection on arrangement with the Clerk of the Re
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6.4 How is law made?

The Scotland Act 1998 provided minimum requirements for the process which was to be followed by the Parliament in creating law by considering and passing Bills. Section 36(1) of the Scotland Act 1998 required there to be at least three distinct stages to which Bills are subject, including a stage when members can debate and vote on the general principles of the Bill, a stage when they can consider and vote on its details, and a final stage when the Bill can be passed or rejected.


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6.3 Overview of the stages of a Bill

Section 29 of the Scotland Act 1998 provides:

‘An Act of the Scottish Parliament is not law so far as any provision of the Act is outside the legislative competence of the Parliament.’

This means that the Scottish Parliament does not have power to legislate for England, Wales or Northern Ireland on reserved matters, and cannot create legislation which is incompatible with EU law or
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6.2 The limits of legislative competence

Before devolution, all Bills affecting Scotland were introduced in, and subject to the procedures of, the UK Parliament. Some of those Bills were limited in extent to Scotland, while others applied to the whole of the United Kingdom (although often with some distinct provisions applicable only to Scotland). You can learn more about the procedures for the UK Parliament in Section 7 of this unit.

Section 28(1) of the Scotland Act
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6.1 Legislative powers of the Scottish Parliament

Section 6 will consider the legislative powers (law making) of the Scottish Parliament, and the procedures that Bills have to go through before they become law. A Bill is a draft Act, and there are a number of different types of Bill. A Public Bill seeks to change the general law or deals with matters of public policy. A Private Bill seeks powers for a particular organisation or individual that are in excess or in conflict with general law. If the Bill is passed it is enacted and becomes an A
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5.1 Devolution

As noted earlier, one of the important things to understand about law making is that it has to be responsive. Lawyers study legal principles and sources of law in a lot of detail at university and as part of their professional qualifications. Whilst many of the basic principles of law and the methods of law making remain the same, the situations they apply often change as the world progresses and develops, for example the increased use of mobile phones and computers. Law has to respond to nee
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4 An overview of the legal history of Scotland

To understand the current system of law making in Scotland it is helpful to know from where it originated. The law in Scotland has a complex history, and has been influenced by a wide range of sources. It has a distinct system from that in England and Wales or Northern Ireland, and remains so today. The distinction comes from both historical developments and the current procedures for law making.

Some of the earliest influences on legal Scotland included native customs, Norse law and We
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