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La séparation des pouvoirs et l'indépendance de la justice

"Entretiens du Jeu de Paume" vendredi 17 juin, samedi 18 juin et dimanche 19 juin 2011, l'UTLS et le Château de Versailles présenteront à Versailles la seconde édition des Entretiens du Jeu de Paume autour du thème de la séparation des pouvoirs.

15h : La séparation des pouvoirs et l'indépendance de la justice
Jean-Marc Sauvé, Vice-président du conseil d'État, Président du comité européen chargé d?évaluer les candidatures aux fon
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Factors Affecting Friction
Based on what they have already learned about friction, students formulate hypotheses concerning the effects of weight and contact area on the amount of friction between two surfaces. In the Associated Activities (Does Weight Matter? and Does Area Matter?), students design and conduct simple experiments to test their hypotheses, using procedures similar to those used in the previous lesson (Discovering Friction). An analysis of their data will reveal the importance of weight to normal friction (
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Impact Conference 2011 - 14:45 - Session B: A 'how to' guide to measuring your own academic impact
Investigating Academic Impact. A conference at the London School of Economics on Monday 13 June 2011. Academics are increasingly being pressed to provide evidence of impact from their research on the world outside academia. And universities will have to provide evidence of impact as part of the new Research Excellence Framework. But there is confusion about the different definitions of impact that exist amongst funding bodies and research councils, and also about methods of measuring impact. Thi
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Impact Conference 2011 - 16:00 - Session C: Knowledge transfer and the role of research mediators
Investigating Academic Impact. A conference at the London School of Economics on Monday 13 June 2011. Academics are increasingly being pressed to provide evidence of impact from their research on the world outside academia. And universities will have to provide evidence of impact as part of the new Research Excellence Framework. But there is confusion about the different definitions of impact that exist amongst funding bodies and research councils, and also about methods of measuring impact. Thi
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Great Zoom into Baltimore, MD: The Inner Harbor
Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves fl
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Luisteren, lezen, spreken: Leg het maar eens uit..
De student oefent luister- en leesvaardigheid aan de hand van (gesproken) teksten over Amerika en de oorlog in Irak. Hij/zij leert mondeling zijn/haar mening uiten over dit onderwerp.
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test of new resource
test of new resource
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The Big Society and the Good Society: rethinking the place of the state in British society
David Cameron has championed the 'big society' as his big idea for government; Ed Miliband has countered with the 'good society'. Two of the thinkers behind these concepts debate what is at stake in rethinking the role of the state in contemporary Britain. Maurice Glasman was raised to Baron Glasman of Stoke Newington and of Stamford Hill in 2011. Jesse Norman is the MP for Hereford and South Herefordshire and author of The Big Society.
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7.3 Procedure by which Bills become law

In order to become an Act of Parliament, a Bill will have to be passed by both the House of Commons and the House of Lords. A Bill may start in either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, with the exception of Finance Bills, which always start in the House of Commons. A Finance Bill is introduced by the Government shortly after the Budget to bring the Government's tax proposals into law.

Before the Bill can become an Act of Parliament it must undergo a number of stages.


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3.4 Summary of Part B

After studying Part B you should be able to:

  • describe the relevance of policy for rule making;

  • recognise differing reactions to Ireland's ban on smoking in the workplace;

  • demonstrate/explain the implications of the rules governing Ireland's ban on smoking in the workplace.

3.4 The development of the European Convention on Human Rights

The aftermath of the Second World War was a time of great activity in the realms of human rights throughout the world, and the United Nations Charter itself, signed on 26 June 1945, included an obligation on states to respect fundamental human rights and freedoms. The development of an International Bill of Rights was significantly influenced by the commencement of the Cold War. However, that did not prevent the signing of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of
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4.1 Introduction

You cannot cite precedents to a judge and ask him or her to follow them if you don't have a good record of all the earlier cases and how they were decided. The operation of binding precedent, therefore, relies on the existence of an extensive reporting service to provide access to previous judicial decisions.

This section will briefly set out where you might locate case reports on particular areas of the law. This is of particular importance to advocates (usually barristers but s
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3.5 Summary of Part B

In Part B you have learned that:

  • the system of precedent requires later courts to use the same reasoning as an earlier court, where two cases raise the same legal issues;

  • the contents of a case report can be divided into two categories:

    • ratio decidendi – the statement of legal principles essential to the decision. The ratio is the binding element of the case


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3.4.3 Summary of binding precedent

In this section you have seen:

  • that not everything in a court case sets a precedent

  • the difference between ratio decidendi (the statement of legal principles material to the decision) and obiter dictum (the discussion of legal principles raised in argument but not material to the decision)

  • that the binding element in a future case is the ratio and that, while the obiter will never be bindin
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3.4.2 Distinguishing

In comparison with the mechanism of overruling, which is rarely used, the main device for avoiding binding precedent is that of distinguishing. As has been previously stated, the ratio decidendi of any case is based upon the material facts of the case. This opens up the possibility that a court may regard the facts of the case before it as significantly different from the facts of a cited precedent, so it will not find itself bound to follow that precedent. Judges use the device of dis
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3.4.1 Overruling

Overruling is the procedure whereby a court higher up in the hierarchy sets aside a legal ruling established in a previous case.

It is strange that, within the system of stare decisis, precedents gain increased authority with the passage of time. As a consequence, courts tend to be reluctant to overrule longstanding authorities even though they may no longer accurately reflect contemporary practices or morals. While old principles are not usually good in dentistry or computer sci
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3.4 Binding precedent

Not everything in a court case sets a precedent. The contents of a case report can be divided into two categories:

  • 1. The reason for the decision – ratio decidendi

  • The ratio decidendi of a case is not the actual decision, like ‘guilty’ or ‘the defendant is liable to pay compensation’. The precedent is set by the rule of law used by the judge or judges in deciding the legal problem raised by the facts
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3.3.6 Summary of the system of precedent

The basis of the system of precedent is the principle of stare decisis and this requires a later court to use the same reasoning as an earlier court where the two cases raise the same legal issues. For example:

  • House of Lords’ decisions are binding on all other courts in the legal system, except the House of Lords itself.

  • The Court of Appeal is bound by previous decisions of the House of Lords. The Court of Appeal generally i
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3.3.5 The High Court

The High Court is also bound by the decisions of superior courts. Decisions by individual High Court judges are binding on courts inferior in the hierarchy, but such decisions are not binding on other High Court judges, although they are of strong persuasive authority and tend to be followed in practice. It is possible, however, for High Court judges to disagree and for them to reach different conclusions as to the law in a particular area. The question then becomes – how is a later High Co
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3.3.4 Divisional courts

The legal terminology for these courts is not very straightforward! The High Court is divided into three ‘divisions’, each one dealing with different sorts of cases – the Family Division, the Chancery Division (that deals with property and money cases) and the Queen's Bench Division (that deals with cases involving things like contracts and negligence). Each of these divisions, however, also has the capacity to act as a court to hear appeals from lower courts and, when the judges s
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