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2.7 (iii) Royal Commissions

Royal Commissions occasionally report to Parliament with recommendations for legislation which may be taken up as part of the Government's legislative programme. Royal Commissions are advisory committees established by the Government – though formally appointed by the Crown, hence the ‘Royal’ – to investigate any subject the Government sees fit to refer to one. They are often used for non-party political issues, or for issues that a Government wishes to be seen as addressing in a non-
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3.2 Forms of business organisation, or ‘business mediums’

If you were to carry on the business described in Activity 2, you would be carrying on business on your own. You would be what is called a ‘sole trader’. We will look at the consequences of being a sole trader in a little bit more detail in this section.

However, not all businesses are run by sole traders. There are several different ways in which
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1 Making, interpreting and applying rules

The aim of this unit is to introduce you to the processes of making, interpreting and applying rules.

We often think about social rules, most of which are unwritten and which we observe because we have a shared social understanding of what they are. We are now going to think about a different kind of rule. A definition of a rule (as opposed to a habit, custom or role) is shown in Author(s): The Open University

References

Dyer, C. (2004) ‘Coe ruling keeps a limit on privacy rights’, Guardian, Monday 31 May.
Tomlinson, H. and Thomson, M. (2004) ‘New model privacy’, New Law Journal, NLJ 154. 7130(794), 28 May.

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Introduction

Privacy has long been recognised as one of the important human rights and this is reflected in religion and history. There are, for example, references to privacy in the Qur'an, the Bible and Jewish law. Privacy was also protected in classical Greece and ancient China.

The protection of privacy is seen as a way of drawing the line to indicate how far society can intrude into a person's affairs. Privacy encompasses an individual's liberty to choose how they lead their lives, freedom from
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3.2 What is the European Convention on Human Rights?

In the aftermath of the Second World War there were public disclosures of huge numbers of cases of brutal, inhuman and tyrannical treatment of people, frequently within the civilian populations of occupied countries. Many serious concerns arose about the way in which millions of people had been mistreated at the instigation of or with the connivance or concurrence of government. There was almost universal disgust and condemnation at the disclosures made, together with a general recognition th
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should:

  • understand the historical growth of the idea of human rights;

  • be aware of the international context of human rights;

  • be aware of the position of human rights in the UK prior to 1998;

  • understand the importance of the Human Rights Act 1998;

  • have practised analysing and evaluating concepts and ideas;

  • have started to see links between the core concepts of rules, rights and
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8 Review of learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

Part A

  • understand the European Convention of Human Rights system of rights and the mechanism set up for their protection:

  • You have seen that the ECHR emerged from the social and political aftermath of the Second World War. It emphasises individual rights and tries to provide a balance between specific individual and collective rights. Som
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6.3 The principle of direct effect

Does the principle of supremacy of EU law mean that the ECJ is the only court in charge of applying and enforcing EU law? The answer to this question is ‘no’, which is the consequence of the principle of direct effect. Certain provisions of EU law may confer rights or impose obligations on individuals that national courts are bound to recognise and enforce. This means that the national courts must apply the directly applicable EU rules and must do so in priority over any conflicting provi
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4.2.1 Year Books (1275–1535)

The earliest reports of particular cases appeared between 1275 and 1535 in what are known as the Year Books. These reports are really of historical interest as they were originally written in a language known as Law French. As with the common law generally, the focus was on procedural matters and forms of pleading. Those who are engaged in the study of legal history will find the most important cases translated and collected together in the Seldon Society series or the Rolls series but, in th
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3.3.2 The styling of legal cases

Activity 8 asks you to read Reading 1 – a short extract from The English Legal System (Slapper and Kelly, 2003) – and identify what you consider are the advantages of allowing the House of Lords to overrule its previous decisions. This extract provides you with examples of instances when the House of Lords has not followed its own previous decisions.

This may be the first time you have read the name of a legal case. Case names are written in a particular style. For example, t
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1 The role of the courts and the judiciary

This unit will explore the role of the courts and the judiciary in England and Wales. The English legal system is often referred to as a ‘common law’ legal system. Before medieval times the law in what we now call Great Britain was largely regional. Different regional kingdoms had different law. Over time, the same law was applied by judges across the single kingdom established after 1066 and so became common to all parts of the country. This was known as ‘the common law’. (The common
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Experiences of learning mathematics
This unit is aimed at teachers who wish to review how they go about the practice of teaching maths, those who are considering becoming maths teachers, or those who are studying maths courses and would like to understand more about the teaching process. First published on Fri, 01 Aug 2008 as Author(s): Creator not set

Starting with maths: Patterns and formulas
Patterns occur everywhere in art, nature, science and especially mathematics. Being able to recognise, describe and use these patterns is an important skill that helps you to tackle a wide variety of different problems. This unit explores some of these patterns ranging from ancient number patterns to the latest mathematical research.Author(s): Creator not set

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Working on your own mathematics
This unit focuses on your initial encounters with research. It invites you to think about how perceptions of mathematics have influenced you in your prior learning, your teaching and the attitudes of learners. First published on Fri, 01 Apr 2011 as Author(s): Creator not set

Introduction

This unit reminds you about powers of numbers, such as squares and square roots. In particular, powers of 10 are used to express large and small numbers in a convenient form, known as scientific notation, which is used by scientific calculators.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Open mathematics (MU120) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this
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3.19 Practical examples of negative numbers

Negative numbers occur in financial matters, in temperature or height measurements and many other practical situations.

Example 26

  • (a) If the value of a painting increases by £20 a year and it is worth £200 today, how much will it be worth in a year's time
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3.18 Subtraction of negative numbers

Next consider subtraction of a negative number. In terms of Thomas’s piggy bank, subtracting a negative number is the same as taking away one of his IOUs. If his mother says ‘you have been a good boy today so I’ll take away that IOU for £3’ this is equivalent to him being given £3.

So, − (3) = 3. Does this correspond with the number line interpretation of subtracting a negative number?

Consider the evaluation of 8 − 3. Continue to think o
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3.7.2 Try some yourself

1 Without using your calculator, find the following:

  • (a) 100.001 + 10.1

  • (b) 100.001 − 10.1

Answer
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3.5 Order of calculations

You may have noticed that sometimes the order in which calculations are carried out seems to matter and sometimes it does not. When using a calculator, it is very important to know the order in which it will do calculations. It is not always the order in which you enter them.

Although written English is read from left to right, this is not the case for all written languages (Chinese is read top to bottom, right to left). With mathematics, the order of the written operations does not alw
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