The equation 23Â =Â 8 means that 3 is the index of the power to which we raise the number 2 to produce 8.

A logarithm is an index, and in this example, 3 is the logarithm of 8 to the base 2. We write this as

Log2 8Â =Â 3

These two equations are identical: 23Â =Â 8 and log2 8Â =Â 3

They express the same fact in the language of logarithms.

Author(s): The Open University

You may find it useful to plan the way you will start your exam. Having a routine can be calming when under pressure. This is from a student who recommends a checklist:

I have a mental checklist of what I need to do once I've turned over the paper. I do this because I used to rush in and answer the fir
Author(s): The Open University

3.1.1 First find a place to revise

Other than the obvious suggestions of having a warm, well-lit and comfortable place to work, we also suggest that you think about choosing a revision place where you can spread out your materials and leave them as they are, without having to pack anything away. This means that you can pick up and put down your revision whenever you find time to revise. This will help you to make the most of your revision time.

On the other hand, you may find that you concentrate better away from the dis
Author(s): The Open University

9.1 Reflection and the four main phases of learning how to learn

If your course encourages this approach to learning, or if you have read other material on learning how to learn, you may have come across the term 'reflection'. Maybe you have been encouraged to reflect on your learning or on your assignments. In this unit, we have deliberately not used the term until now. This is not because we think the term - or the process - is unimportant, but because it can seem vague and not particularly helpful to you as a learner. In fact, all the activities in this
Author(s): The Open University

1.2 What do we mean by learning how to learn?

## Activity 1

This activity will help you to explore what we mean by learning how to learn.

Think back to an example of study you have done in the past, or any fairly structured learning opportunity you remember. Focus on a particular ac
Author(s): The Open University

Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

• think about what the key concepts and issues are;

• detach yourself from disagreements with the author's views.

Author(s): The Open University

8 Analysis, argument and critical thinking

In this section, we are going to look in detail at analysis and argument. Analytical thinking is a particular type of higher order thinking central to much academic activity. It is concerned with examining 'methodically and in detail the constitution or structure of something' (Oxford English Dictionary). This includes looking at variables, factors, and relationships between things, as well as examining ideas and problems, and detecting and analysing arguments. Many essay questions require ar
Author(s): The Open University

5.5 Reflecting on what I have done differently — what was the effect?

We hope that the activities in this section have helped you to bring to mind what you have learned. But we also want you to think about whether you have done anything differently from what you might have tried before starting the unit. In other words, we want you to ask yourself whether the unit has given you the confidence, or some ideas that have encouraged you, to take a bit of a risk, or, as Section 4 puts it, to step outside your comfort zone.

Do not worry if you cannot say that yo
Author(s): The Open University

4.5.3 Formal routes to learning

Here we are thinking both of educational institutions (schools, colleges and universities) and work-based learning, such as National Vocational Qualifications (which accredit learning on the job), apprenticeships, and secondments which allow for rehearsal of old skills in new areas, or the development of new skills to take back to the old setting.

Hand-in-hand with the emphasis on lifelong learning, there has been a growth in flexibility and in the idea of personalised learning. It is n
Author(s): The Open University

4.5.2 Thinking about knowledge and skills

As you learned in Section 3, there are various routes to acquiring knowledge and skills including formal and informal learning opportunities, and individual and social routes to learning.

We now encourage you to think first about formal approaches to acquiring the knowledge and skills you might need and then about informal learning approaches.

Author(s): The Open University

Modern-day life often means we have so many commitments that it is hard to find the time to do all the things that we would like to do. However, instead of listing â€˜not having the timeâ€™ as one of your obstacles, an alternative decision might be to â€˜make timeâ€™ by temporarily dropping another activity that you currently take part in, so that you can make room for the new one. It is a question of working out where your priorities lie; how motivated you are to achieve one goal rather than
Author(s): The Open University

3.2.4 Johari window

This idea is being introduced at this point so that you can use it as you think about the impact of feedback.

The Johari window is named after its originators, Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingram (for some reason there is only ever one â€˜râ€™ in â€˜Johariâ€™). It consists of four different areas which are shown in Figure 15 and looks rather like the separate panes of a window.

Author(s): The Open University

1.1 Welcome

Learning to change is a unit for people who are interested in learning about making changes in their lives. We think that you will find the unit interesting and that it will give you ideas that are useful for bringing about personal change.

The aims of this section are to:

1. provide you with a clear idea of what the unit is about and how it is structured
3. start yo
Author(s): The Open University

1.2.5 Coping when things go wrong

Personal computing is not a mature technology. It is changing so fast and becoming so complex that it never gets a chance to settle down and become really reliable. You need to learn ways of coping with this unreliability, to learn to laugh at the frustrations you will encounter and find ways of minimising the damage.

There are various ways of coping with computing problems:

• Save your work often â€“ every few minutes, not every few hours.

Author(s): The Open University

10 Reflecting on tutor feedback

When you have taken the assignment as far as you can, you will benefit more from the feedback from your tutor than you will from further polishing.

• If you have worked hard to become involved with your subject you will really appreciate having a captive audience. Someone with as much interest in the subject (and presumably greater knowledge) as you, will take time to read what you have written and to understand what you are trying to say.

• Author(s): The Open University

5.4 Identifying sources

So what material do you have available to you?

• Your materials are likely to be your first sources of information.

• Any guidance notes you may have been given will sometimes tell you exactly which sections you need to look at. But don't forget that your course materials encompass more than just these texts.

• Make use of any handouts you've been given.

• Your own notes of what you have been reading or watch
Author(s): The Open University

8.6 Research skills

This kind of work teaches some very valuable skills:

• how to set about an enquiry

• how and where to find source material and information

• how to make your own investigations

• strategic planning

• time management

• cutting corners and being pragmatic

• analysing and interpreting primary and secondary source material

Author(s): The Open University

3.2 Carrying out an analysis

Here, then, is the two-verse poem we will focus on in the next few sections of the unit. As you see, I have left out the ends of the lines in the second verse. So it presents you with a kind of â€˜puzzleâ€™. (But I have included the punctuation, and added line numbers for ease of reference.)

1. The grey sea and the long black land;

2. And the yellow half-moon large and low;

3. And the startled little waves that leap

4. <
Author(s): The Open University

9.7.3 Identify ways of further developing your skills in working with others

Use your assessment and reflective comments to suggest ways of improving your own performance in working with others. How do you intend to make these changes? Working in a group is a skill that you may need to go on developing throughout your course of study and in the workplace. All groups vary, and to enhance the performance of any group, as well as to help individual group members develop their skills, it is helpful to look at how the group has operated.

Author(s): The Open University