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10 Living in herds

Wildebeest are only one of the species of plant predator that live in herds. Many others do too.

Activity 7

Watch the the TV programme from 30.48–47.32 and read LoM p. 109. Identify and write down (a) a couple of advantages and
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5.3 Hindgut fermenters

The odd-toed ungulates (comprising the order Perissodactyla), the horses, tapirs and rhinoceroses, are hindgut fermenters, as are elephants. Update Table 2 with this information. These animals have a relatively simple, small undivided stomach, but this time an even larger caecum and colon where the microbes are housed and whe
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3.5 Natural selection

Darwin summarised his theory of natural selection in the introduction to The Origin of Species as follows:

As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life
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3.2 Shrews

Activity 2

9.2 Background

Bellaby, P. (2003) ‘Communication and miscommunication of risk: understanding UK parents' attitudes to combined MMR vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 327, 27 September 2003, pp. 725–28. Reproduced by permission from the BMJ Publishing Group; Mary Evans Picture Library Ltd; P A Photos.

In 1998 Wakefield was the first to make the claim that autism and the MMR vaccine are linked.1 It is based on a dozen clinical cases of gastrointestinal disorders with w
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Figures

Grateful acknowledgement is made to th
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3.1 Limitations of Ampère's law

In order to analyse the limitations of Ampère's law, and suggest ways of overcoming them, we need to use some properties of divergence. For ease of reference, these properties are given below:

Some properties of divergence

  1. The divergence of any curl is equal
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3.2 Io

Io is one of the most marvellous bodies in the Solar System, but the intense radiation bathing its surface (Figure 2) makes it unlikely that anyone will ever be able to visit. Even robotic spacecraft cannot survive this close to Jupiter for very long, so the Galileo Jupiter orbiter made very few close fly-bys of Io.
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2.3 Movie 1 – Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

View document707.1KB video/quicktime

This i
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1.10 Ganymede

David A. Rothery Teach Yourself Planets, Chapter 9, pp. 107–39, Hodder Education, 2000, 2003.

Copyright © David Rothery

Ganymede is the largest planetary satellite in the Solar System, being bigger (though less massive) than the planet Mercury. It is shown in comparison with its outer neighbour Callisto in Author(s): The Open University

4.2 DDT: a classic case in ecotoxicology

DDT is very effective in controlling pests, being very toxic to insects, and is cheap to produce. Its effectiveness is enhanced because it is very persistent, remaining active in the environment for a long time. This increases its value as an insecticide to farmers because one application lasts a long time, but is also a major reason why it poses a threat to wildlife and to human health. Although the agricultural use of DDT was banned in most developed countries 30 years ago, it can still be
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3.8.1 Standard deviation: finding how reproducible a series of measurements are

Even if we know the maximum and minimum and middle values in a group of numbers, we still don't have a clear idea about the distribution of values within that range: are most of the values all bunched up at one end or spread evenly across the results?

For instance, if I count my pulse rate on the hour every hour, nine times over the course of a day, I might get the following values for the number of beats per minute (bpm): 61, 59, 60, 62, 60, 100, 59, 63, 61. The average result is 65 bp
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1.4.1 Study Note 2

An important point to remember when writing down measurements from a scale is never to quote more decimal places than you can reliably read from the measuring device you are using.

Figure 4
<
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6 Unit summary

  • A discrete exotic terrane refers to a large crustal fragment that can be recognised by its distinct sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic and structural history compared with that of its eventual neighbours, and has been juxtaposed into position by major strike–slip faults.

  • Nine discrete exotic terranes make up the Basement in the British Isles. These consist primarily of Precambrian metamorphosed rocks but also contain some unmetamorphosed sedi
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5.5 Variscan Orogenic Belt

Unlike the Caledonian Orogenic Belt, outcrops of the Variscan Orogenic Belt are limited to the south-west of England, southern Wales and the south of Ireland (see Figure 9 and Author(s): The Open University

3.10 Moon42: Apollo 15 station 10

James B. Irwin took this pan moments after he and Dave Scott arrived at Station 10. (QuickTime, 500KB, note: this may take some time to download depending on your connection speed)

3.9 Moon41: Apollo 15 station 2

The panorama was collected by James B. Irwin at Station 2. David Scott is to the left of the rover. He is examining a boulder. The large hill to the left of the rover is the summit of Mt. Hadley Delta. (QuickTime, 400KB, note: this may take some time to download depending on your connection speed)

6.3 Chemical formulas

By using symbols, elements can be represented much more conveniently and much more briefly. This method of using symbols can be extended to compounds. You will now look further into this idea using a very familiar compound: water. Recall which atoms there are in a water molecule.

Question 24


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4 Inside the atom

Before going on to see how atoms can link (bond) with each other, you need to look at atoms in a little more detail. Doubtless they are not like blocks of Lego! So what are they like?

In fact, every atom has a complex internal structure. Given the extremely small size of an atom, you may find it difficult to visualise any smaller bits inside it. However, you may already be familiar with some of the effects of one of these components – electrons. It is easy to do an experiment t
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7 Sedimentation and tectonics at a mid-Ordovician to Silurian active margin

The document attached below includes the seventh section of Mountain building in Scotland. In this section, you will find the following subsections:

  • 7.1 Introduction

  • 7.2 Mid-Ordovician to Silurian sedimentation in the Midland Valley Terrane

    • 7.2.1 Ordivician sedimentation

    • 7.2.2 Silurian sedimentiation

    • 7.2.3 Summary of Section 7.2

  • 7
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