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4.1 Introduction to minerals and why we need them
Both vitamins and minerals are essential in the diet in small quantities.The term ‘vitamin’ was not coined until early in the 20th century, to describe those chemicals in food without which a pattern of deficiency symptoms (often called a deficiency syndrome) occurs. Minerals, also called mineral elements, are those elements other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen that are found in the body. This unit looks at the two main groups of vitamins: the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K,
Author(s): The Open University

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1.1 Introduction to vitamins and why we need them
Both vitamins and minerals are essential in the diet in small quantities.The term ‘vitamin’ was not coined until early in the 20th century, to describe those chemicals in food without which a pattern of deficiency symptoms (often called a deficiency syndrome) occurs. Minerals, also called mineral elements, are those elements other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen that are found in the body. This unit looks at the two main groups of vitamins: the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K,
Author(s): The Open University

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8.1 Introduction
Graphs are a common way of presenting information. However, like any other type of representation, graphs rely on shared understandings of symbols and styles to convey meaning. Also, graphs are normally drawn specifically with the intention of presenting information in a particularly favourable or unfavourable light, to convince you of an argument or to influence your decisions.
Author(s): The Open University

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6.1 Introduction
Graphs are a common way of presenting information. However, like any other type of representation, graphs rely on shared understandings of symbols and styles to convey meaning. Also, graphs are normally drawn specifically with the intention of presenting information in a particularly favourable or unfavourable light, to convince you of an argument or to influence your decisions.
Author(s): The Open University

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4.1 Introduction
Graphs are a common way of presenting information. However, like any other type of representation, graphs rely on shared understandings of symbols and styles to convey meaning. Also, graphs are normally drawn specifically with the intention of presenting information in a particularly favourable or unfavourable light, to convince you of an argument or to influence your decisions.
Author(s): The Open University

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3.1 Introduction
Graphs are a common way of presenting information. However, like any other type of representation, graphs rely on shared understandings of symbols and styles to convey meaning. Also, graphs are normally drawn specifically with the intention of presenting information in a particularly favourable or unfavourable light, to convince you of an argument or to influence your decisions.
Author(s): The Open University

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3.1 Introduction

I wonder if you experience complexity in your daily life? For much of the time I struggle to keep my head above water as I try to understand and manage the complexity I experience as part of everyday life. I find social commentator and cartoonist Michael Leunig's depiction of a solitary figure looking through an ‘understandascope’ (Figure 2) a particularly skilled way of capturing the sense of bewilderment I someti
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8.1 Introduction
Microelectronics has enabled designers of integrated circuits to exercise complete control over the electrical characteristics of each component they create. This unit will illustrate how such control is achieved and the various methods that can be applied in differing circumstances.
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7.1 Introduction
Microelectronics has enabled designers of integrated circuits to exercise complete control over the electrical characteristics of each component they create. This unit will illustrate how such control is achieved and the various methods that can be applied in differing circumstances.
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3.1 Introduction
Microelectronics has enabled designers of integrated circuits to exercise complete control over the electrical characteristics of each component they create. This unit will illustrate how such control is achieved and the various methods that can be applied in differing circumstances.
Author(s): The Open University

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2.1 Introduction
Microelectronics has enabled designers of integrated circuits to exercise complete control over the electrical characteristics of each component they create. This unit will illustrate how such control is achieved and the various methods that can be applied in differing circumstances.
Author(s): The Open University

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5.1 Introduction

One of the most difficult aspects of planning a project is estimating how long it will take to complete each key stage. An estimate might be based on:

  • the size of the tasks and the effort required to complete them;

  • the number of days that are not available for working on the project;

  • historical data from other projects, including the experience of colleagues.

Where a project has a fixed end-date (for
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2.1 Introduction

The planning process aims to demonstrate how the project outcomes will be achieved successfully within both the required timescale, the agreed budget and the required quality. As each project is different, there are a number of ways of taking an overview of a project. Two of these are:

  • the project life-cycle, which is a useful way of understanding the different phases of a project as it progresses, and

  • the classic six-stage project ma
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4.1 Introduction

This section will explore the interaction of technology and costs with market demand in shaping industrial structure throughout the industry life cycle. Many industries begin as a numerous and turbulent group of firms jostling for position, experimenting with new and idiosyncratic products, and turn into a much smaller, more stable number of firms, making standardised products by routine methods. In this section we add a rather different view of firms to that developed in Author(s): No creator set

3.1 Introduction

In this section the focus turns towards the supply side of the market, towards firms and industries, exploring the importance of costs and technological change in the organisation of production. The objective is to understand some of the different kinds of change in industrial structure, namely changes in the number and size of firms in an industry. One such change saw the emergence of Ford, initially one among many similar firms jostling for position in the US automobile industry, as the ind
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6 Manipulating data in computers: introduction
Computers are all around us: in cars, kitchen scales, digital cameras, etc. But how do they store the data they hold? This unit will help you to understand how the data in a computer represents something in the outside world. You will also explore how ASCII code and Unicode are used to control data.
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4.1 Introduction
Computers are all around us: in cars, kitchen scales, digital cameras, etc. But how do they store the data they hold? This unit will help you to understand how the data in a computer represents something in the outside world. You will also explore how ASCII code and Unicode are used to control data.
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3.1 Introduction
Computers are all around us: in cars, kitchen scales, digital cameras, etc. But how do they store the data they hold? This unit will help you to understand how the data in a computer represents something in the outside world. You will also explore how ASCII code and Unicode are used to control data.
Author(s): The Open University

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2.1 Introduction
Computers are all around us: in cars, kitchen scales, digital cameras, etc. But how do they store the data they hold? This unit will help you to understand how the data in a computer represents something in the outside world. You will also explore how ASCII code and Unicode are used to control data.
Author(s): The Open University

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1 Representing data in computers: introduction
Computers are all around us: in cars, kitchen scales, digital cameras, etc. But how do they store the data they hold? This unit will help you to understand how the data in a computer represents something in the outside world. You will also explore how ASCII code and Unicode are used to control data.
Author(s): The Open University

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