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7.5 Emission from spiralling electrons: synchrotron radiation
Active galaxies provide a prime example of high energy processes operating in the Universe. This unit gives an overview of active galaxies, including the supermassive black holes that power the engines at their centres, and the emission processes by which we detect and study them. It also gives practice in mathematical techniques for analysing data and theoretical models.
Author(s): The Open University

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5 Distances in extragalactic astronomy
Active galaxies provide a prime example of high energy processes operating in the Universe. This unit gives an overview of active galaxies, including the supermassive black holes that power the engines at their centres, and the emission processes by which we detect and study them. It also gives practice in mathematical techniques for analysing data and theoretical models.
Author(s): The Open University

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2.4 How thick is Europa's ice?
The new discipline of astrobiology – that is, the science of searching for extraterrestrial life – is not only rapdly growing, but has also captured the public imagination. This unit examines the emergence of icy satellites of distant planets as potential sites of extraterrestrial life. Focussing on the case study of Jupiter's moon Europa, the unit looks at the potential for life there, and speculates on the ethics of searching for life elsewhere in the solar system.
Author(s): The Open University

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10 Living in herds
From the mouse-deer to the elephant, plant eaters come in all shapes and sizes. But how do they manage to flourish on a salad diet? In this unit we will examine the special features that allow them to extract their nutrients from leaves, and see how some plants protect themselves from these predators. This is the fourth unit in the ‘Studying mammals’ series.
Author(s): The Open University

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4 Suggestions for further reading
The restless Universe introduces you to major achievements and figures in the history of physics, from Copernicus to Einstein and beyond. The route from classical to quantum physics will be laid out for you without recourse to challenging mathematics but with the fundamental features of theories and discoveries described in sufficient detail to whet your appetite for further physics study.
Author(s): The Open University

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3.1 Surfaces with twists
Surfaces are a special class of topological spaces that crop up in many places in the world of mathematics. In this unit, you will learn to classify surfaces and will be introduced to such concepts as homeomorphism, orientability, the Euler characteristic and the Classification Theorum.
Author(s): The Open University

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2.3.2 Möbius band
Surfaces are a special class of topological spaces that crop up in many places in the world of mathematics. In this unit, you will learn to classify surfaces and will be introduced to such concepts as homeomorphism, orientability, the Euler characteristic and the Classification Theorum.
Author(s): The Open University

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2 Representing symmetries
We all encounter symmetry in our everyday lives, in both natural and man-made structures. The mathematical concepts surrounding symmetry can be a bit more difficult to grasp. This unit explains such concepts as direct and indirect symmetries, Cayley tables and groups through exercises, audio and video.
Author(s): The Open University

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3.3.2 Citizenship beyond (species) borders
Human societies have to take urgent action to end their dependences on fossil fuels. We have to alter the whole path of our development and decision making in order to make our societies both environmentally adaptable and sustainable. This unit takes on the task of trying to chart some of the ways in which it might be possible.
Author(s): The Open University

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6.2 (a) ‘Cleaning-up’ fossil and nuclear technologies
Access to safe, clean and sustainable energy supplies is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity during the twenty-first century. This unit will survey the world’s present energy systems and their sustainability problems, together with some of the possible solutions to those problems and how these might emerge in practice.
Author(s): The Open University

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Next steps

After completing this unit you may wish to study another OpenLearn Study Unit or find out more about this topic. Here are some sugggestions:

1.2 Readings

In considering the environmental and social challenges that we are currently facing, we are clearly dealing with so-called ‘wicked’ problems: the ‘problems’ manifest themselves only as you try to engage and Author(s): No creator set

5.4.2 Leadership expectations
Are you always the quiet one when it comes to group discussion? This unit will help you improve your working relationships with other people in groups of three or more. This unit also deals with project life cycles, project management and the role of the leader.
Author(s): The Open University

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5.3.2 Style theories
Are you always the quiet one when it comes to group discussion? This unit will help you improve your working relationships with other people in groups of three or more. This unit also deals with project life cycles, project management and the role of the leader.
Author(s): The Open University

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5.3.1 Trait theories
Are you always the quiet one when it comes to group discussion? This unit will help you improve your working relationships with other people in groups of three or more. This unit also deals with project life cycles, project management and the role of the leader.
Author(s): The Open University

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4.4.1 Task-oriented behaviours
Are you always the quiet one when it comes to group discussion? This unit will help you improve your working relationships with other people in groups of three or more. This unit also deals with project life cycles, project management and the role of the leader.
Author(s): The Open University

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5.3 The systems engineering methodology used in the course

The aim of systems engineering is to achieve a solution that is effective and sustainable through its life cycle, together with the associated processes and facilities needed to realise the system and introduce it into the real world. Therefore it is important that systems engineering is itself conducted in full consideration of the following five systems:

  • the technology development system that provides new or modified technology for the other systems
    Author(s): No creator set

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3.5 Systems concepts: dynamic behaviour: input-transformation-output

Utilitarian systems, as previously discussed, are the means we use to transform resource inputs into useful goods and services. Any system can be divided into a set of input-transformation-output blocks. These are usually represented as in Figure 31. This way of looking at systems can be used as an analytical and design tool.


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4.6 Photographs showing the detail: debris field

The relatively clear platform of pier 3 is also visible in Figure 28. There are several pieces of shaped metal on the floor, at least one appears to be a bolt. A close-up of the floor, taken looking east, is shown in Figure 31. So, what are the fragments? At least three bolts are visible, but more significantly, there are nine broken lug ends. These are the
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11.5 Step 4 – act of insight
This unit is for designers, engineers, technologists and anyone interested in designing and inventing. It is also for managers and consumers interested in innovation and technical change. The unit will show you how design and innovation can create a more sustainable future. It will also help you understand how innovation comes about and will encourage thinking about environmental and social challenges for the future.
Author(s): The Open University

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