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1.5.2 Discrepancy definitions

The label is given if there is a discrepancy between perceived potential to learn to read (as indicated by general ability) and actual level of reading achievement.

The most common way of diagnosing dyslexia is to look for a discrepancy between someone's general ability as measured by an IQ assessment and his or her performance on standardised measures of reading and spelling. However, there are
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1.2.1 Statistical approaches to ‘normality’

What did you base your idea of ‘normal’ height on? It might have been based on your own experience, reflecting the average height of women in your community. Similarly, ‘abnormality’ can be defined in terms of low statistical frequency. If what is most common in the general population is considered ‘normal’, then any behaviour or psychological characteristic that occurs only rarely may be regarded as ‘abnormal’. From this viewpoint, above average individuals are just as
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • identify and discuss the issues that relate to the definition, explanation and remediation of ‘abnormal’ psychological functioning;

  • understand the complexities involved in identifying, explaining and managing dyslexia.


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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Other acknowledgements

Text: DfES ‘Constitut
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Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes for this unit are:

  • to explain the composition of governing bodies and to consider the respective roles of the ‘officers’ of the governing body;

  • to understand the sharing of the governing body's workload within an agreed formal committee structure;

  • to develop governors as effective managers of their role through critical self-evaluation;

  • to encourage governors to undertake appropriate training as a means of es
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5.6.2 Accessibility design guidelines

Listed below is a selection of accessibility guidelines that offer a starting point for your own research into the guidelines available for designing accessible, user-friendly products.


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5.2.2 Key accessibility principles

Below are listed 10 principles for accessibility. These principles underpin many of the sets of accessibility guidelines available, which are referred to in ‘Design guidelines and their limitations’.

1. Keyboard operation: the ability to operate applications fully via the keyboard.

This means supporting the standard keyboard shortcuts available for the operating system, such as Alt+F4 to close a wi
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4.5.1 Don't – alter courses to the disadvantage of non-disabled students

Educators are not expected to make changes that would make the course less effective for most other students. For example, audioconferencing may be a valuable tool that has a positive effect on students’ grades. In this case, you would not be expected to abandon it, even if the audioconferencing cannot be made accessible for deaf students.

Health and safety for all students also has to be maintained, although it is rare for there to be a conflict.


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4.4.1 Do – anticipate that there may be disabled students

Every subject area is likely to have potential disabled students. Regardless of any feeling that you may have that students with particular disabilities will never want to do your course, you have to consider that they might apply and that you have a duty to consider your response.


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3.3.4 Screen readers and speech synthesisers

A refreshable Braille display is a row of cells each containing pins that represent Braille dots. These pins are raised or lowered to form Braille letters. The screen reader program sends text a line at a time or as set by the user. The hardware is expensive, a 40 character display costs about £4000 ($7000, €6000); so this option is most often used by those in employment. Its main advantage over speech output is that refreshable Braille distinguishes between individual characters, so there
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2.5.1 References

Channel 4 (undated) ‘Watch your language’ [online], London, Channel 4 Television, www.channel4.com/life/microsites/B/bornfreak/language.htm (Accessed 31 July 2007).

DEMOS (2003) website http://jarmin.com/demos/.

DEMOS (2002) ‘Disability Awareness’ module [online], Manchester, DEMOS Project, http://jarmin.com/ de
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2.1 Models of disability

Disability is discussed more frequently now than it was even a single generation ago. You may have come across ‘political correctness’ debates in the media in which the terms used to describe diverse groups of people are discussed.

In this short activity, we ask you to read about models of disability and guidance on terminology. You will also be asked to revisit your list of challenging activities from the ‘Accessibility and disability’ activity and to update it if necessary.
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1.2.2 Usability

The second factor is good practice. In general terms, and business terms, it is good practice to make a product available to as wide a market as possible. A design that incorporates the requirements for disabled students is likely to be more accessible and useful for non-disabled students than a design without such consideration. One example would be a user interface that is usable by a blind person will also be usable by a person whose eyes are busy (for example people who are doing a task t
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3 The challenge of change

…although we may be striving to turn a profession that has the inertia of a supertanker, as individuals each of us is a speed boat that can turn on a dime…

(Pate and Hohn (1994), p. 217)

The American authors of the quote above suggest that PE needs to change so that it places primary emphasis on the promotion of lifelong exercise. However, they consider that this could be slow and difficult
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1. Efficient brain performance

Two sources of fuel are particularly important to ensure a healthy and efficiently functioning brain – oxygen and water. Fortunately, in many countries, both of these are in ready supply! Many schools in the UK are already beginning to recognise the need for students (and their brains) to be sufficiently hydrated, and have installed water-coolers at strategic points. Oxygen is easier to supply, but sitting down for a typical 50-minute lesson could decrease the amount of oxygen delivered to
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3.5 Issues of capability

Very occasionally, issues about the capability of the headteacher may arise during discussions about performance against agreed objectives.

If the appointed performance review governors suspect that the headteacher is not able to meet his/her objectives, they should first consider the circumstances of the school to satisfy themselves that these have not altered significantly to make the objective/s unachievable. If this is the case, they should make necessary allowances when monitoring
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Special Restrictions: Teach Global courses are governed by the Teach Global site Te
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Formats

Later in 2013, OpenLearn study units will be available to be downloaded or taken away in several formats:

  • print format
  • unit content XML
  • unit content RSS
  • OU XML package
  • IMS Content Package
  • IMS Common Cartridge
  • plain zip
  • Moodle back-up.

At the asset level, the major formats you will find are:

  • text in XML or PDF
  • animations in Flash
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4.3 OpenLearn

The material here on OpenLearn has been cleared for use using the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial ShareAlike 2.0 for England and Wales.

In short, this means you are free to:

  • copy, distribute, display and perform the work
  • make derivative works

as long as you follow these conditions:

  • attribution – you must give the original author credit
  • non-commercial
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3.1 Finding OERs

Activity 3

Use Google’s Advanced Search to find an OER in an area that interests you. It allows you to restrict your results to
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