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3.1.3 Observing through the interstellar medium

  • Material in the interstellar medium absorbs radiation. An extra term, A, the absorption in magnitudes, is required in Equation C:

  • Radiation is both scattered and absorbed by inters
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7.8 Summary of Section 7

This section has sought to illustrate the formation of connections between neurons and their targets by exploring a few examples. The picture that emerges is one of cells at different stages of development subjected to a vast array of signals. These signals are the medium through which environmental factors exert their effects. To some of these signals, some cells respond; to other signals, other cells respond. What a cell, a neuroblast, a growth cone actually does is dependent on the combina
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7.6 Synaptogenesis

The formation of synaptic connections is an essential property of nervous system development. Synapses are formed between neurons and also with targets that are not part of the nervous system, e.g. muscle. Axon terminals, under the direction of a variety of extracellular cues, grow towards particular targets. Once they arrive at the target, they stop growing and the growth cone changes to form a synapse. As with axon growth, the formation of the synapse is dependent on an interaction between
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1.8 The OU requirements

The criteria for an OU PhD (as stated in the Guidelines on Research Degree Examinations for Heads of Disciplines, Supervisors and Examination Panels, EX 10, revised January 1998) are that:

The thesis must be of good presentation style and show evidence of being a significant contribution knowledge and of the student's capacity to pursue further research without supervision. The thesis must contain
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1.5.6 Sedimentary structures

Consider some of the places where sedimentary materials are moved and deposited. Are the sediments always laid down in perfectly horizontal, perfectly flat layers? No; as often as not, the depositing surface is not perfectly flat. Instead, a system of parallel ridges, or ripple marks, like the ones shown in Author(s): The Open University

3.1 Word formulas

A formula is a rule or a generalisation. Word formulas – formulas that use English words rather than mathematical symbols – are so much a part of life that people often use them without realising that they are doing so. Here are some examples.

  • The cost of a purchase of oranges is the price per orange times the number of oranges.

  • The total cost of petrol is the price of petrol per litre times the number of litres.


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References

Anderson, R.C. (2002) Ray's story [online], http://www.interfaceinc.com/getting_there/ Ray.html (Accessed 31 November 2002).
Arnstein, S.R. (1969) ‘Ladder of citizen participation’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, vol. 35, pp. 216–24.
Bromley, S. (2001). Governing the European Union, London, Sage.

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1.2.7 In praise of cheap offshore labour?

Claims over the benefits of globalisation and the exploitation of cheap offshore labour generate strong feelings and, not surprisingly, divide opinion between those who favour the global marketplace and its detractors. The issue turns on whether the constant search for ever-cheaper manufacturing and service locations is seen as a good or a bad thing. It may appear odd, at first, to suggest that exploiting the poor of another country can, on any measure, be regarded as a good thing, but
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5.4 Social bookmarks

If you find you have a long unmanageable list of favourites/bookmarks you might like to try social bookmarks as an alternative.

Activity 14 – what you need to know about social bookmarks

Read 7 things you should know about so
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4.6 P is for Provenance

The provenance of a piece of information (i.e. who produced it? where did it come from?) may provide another useful clue to its reliability. It represents the 'credentials' of a piece of information that support its status and perceived value. It is therefore very important to be able to identify the author, sponsoring body or source of your information.

Why is this important?

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5.4.1 Leadership roles

  • The classic ‘scientific’ view of the leader is as the central ‘controller’ – planning, monitoring and regulating.

  • The more ‘democratic’ view sees the role as facilitator, or coordinator.

  • The more ‘educational’ view sees it as that of adviser, teacher, source of expertise, etc.

  • Adair identified three overlapping areas: achieving the task, building and maintaining the team, and developing in
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5.3.4 Leadership theory summary

This brief review of leadership theories has indicated that there are no simple answers to what it is that makes some leaders more effective than others, and no single best leadership style or approach. What matters is that the style adopted should fit with the expectations of those being led and be consistent with the task at hand (that is, it should not ignore the specific characteristics of the task itself).

There are no simple answers, which is perhaps why this continues to be the s
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5.3.1 Trait theories

Trait theories are based on the assumption that the determining factor in an effective leader is a set of personal characteristics. It is also assumed that the way to discover these characteristics is to study successful leaders and determine which characteristics they have in common. However, despite innumerable studies, only about 5 per cent of the characteristics identified in successful leaders have been found to be widely shared. Of these, three stand out as significant:

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4.4 Step growth polymerization

Figure 41

Introduction

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Digital Communications (T305) which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this curriculum area.

By using optical fibre, very high data rates (gigabits per second
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3.6 Interfaces in the supply network

Managing the internal interfaces is part of the story. Of increasing importance is the management of the processes that cross organisational boundaries between suppliers and purchasers, that is, the management of the supply network or chain. This network of suppliers, customers, government agencies and others that are necessary parts of the entire value system must be proactively managed. This includes designing the network appropriately.

A supply network is defined as:

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4.9 Final implementation

The line you take here obviously depends on the problem you set out to solve. If you were creating a new product for retail or industry, then the final step of the process would be to put that product into manufacture and watch it go off into the world to begin its life cycle (Figure 20). If the so
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1 Aims of Creating musical sounds

The aims of this unit are to:

  • introduce the idea that a musical instrument is made up of several component parts and that each component has natural frequencies at which it prefers to vibrate;

  • introduce the concept of standing waves and explain how a standing wave is made up of two travelling waves;

  • show that a component prefers to vibrate at its natural frequencies because these are the frequencies at which standing waves
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17.3 Choosing appropriate materials and manufacturing process

The choice of materials and manufacturing process for a particular new product is an important aspect of the innovation process. It is not necessarily the case that the materials chosen for the early prototypes of an invention are those best suited for the larger-scale manufacture of the innovation. Choice of materials can affect the performance, quality and economic manufacture of most new products, so it's important to choose wisely.

While inventors and designers usually need to seek
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4.2.4 Verbs

Verbs are the most important words of all, as is suggested by the fact that the verb in both English and Latin is named after the Latin word uerbum, word! Without a verb, a sentence cannot be a proper sentence, or a clause a proper clause. A one-word sentence consists of a verb only, for example, Run!

The ending of a Latin verb shows who the doer of the action of the verb is (which is why there is usually no need of a pronoun to show this). Below are the pres
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