Austenitic stainless steel
Shows the grain structure of an austenitic stainless steel NF709, observed using light microscopy on a specimen polished and etched electrolytically using 10% oxalic acid solution in water. Many of the grains contain annealing twins. NF709 is a creep-resistant austenitic stainless steel used in the construction of highly sophisticated power generation units. Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.
Author(s): Prof H K D H Bhadeshia, Department of Materials Sc

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Silal
This sample shows the typical structure of silal, irons with high Si content (5.5-7.9 wt%). It is a grey cast iron alloyed with 4-6wt% Si to provide good oxidation resistance. The high Si content forms a dense, adherent iron silicate surface film, which is resistant to oxygen penetration. The flake graphite iron Silal was one of the first heat resisting cast irons developed. Spheroidal graphite Si irons have higher strength and improved ductility. The structure shows cored dendrites of ferrite w
Author(s): Prof T W Clyne, Department of Materials Science an

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Alporas' closed cell aluminium foam
Additions are made to molten aluminium or aluminium alloy to modify the melt viscosity and make it suitable for foaming. 1 to 3 wt% titanium hydride is then added to the melt, and this foams the melt by releasing hydrogen. The foamed melt solidifies to yield a closed cellular structure with an average cell size of 4.5 mm
Author(s): Dr V Gergely, Department of Materials Science and

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Ni-hard iron
This is a Ni-hard iron, one of the first cast irons to be developed. These white irons contain Ni to ensure that the austenite transforms to martensite following heating and chromium to increase the hardness of the eutectic carbide.Ni-hard irons are normally stress relieved at 200-300 °C for approximately four hours to relieve the martensitic transformation stresses and to promote the transformation of retained austenite. The structure consists of proeutectic austenite dendrites containing mart
Author(s): Prof T W Clyne, Department of Materials Science an

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, as cast, dendritic
A cast alloy of high zinc brass, consisting of β dendrites. The α precipitates out of solution at the crystal boundaries, forming a structure of β dendrites surrounded by α. This is known as a Widmanstätten structure because a geometrical pattern of α forms on certain crystallographic orientations of the β lattice.
Author(s): Dr R F Cochrane, Department of Materials, Universi

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Cross-section of an aluminium foam slab produced by gas injection
This is a continuous casting process which obviates foaming agents and the restrictions that they impose on temperature and processing time. However, molten metal drains through the structure due to gravitational forces and the resulting foam has a pronounced density gradient.
Author(s): Dr V Gergely, Department of Materials Science and

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SEM image of open cell polyurethane foam
If a gas is injected into a liquid it forms a cellular foam structure. When a thermoset prepolymer of low viscosity is foamed, the polymer can drain from the cell walls (driven by surface tension) before it sets at the cell edges, leaving an open-celled foam. The cell edges have three concave sides, giving rise to the tri-cuspid cross section visible at the bottom of this image. The average co-ordination number for the nodes (where struts meet) is four, giving tetrahedral junctions.
Author(s): J A Curran, Department of Materials Science and Me

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Zn, cold rolled - mechanical twins
This sample was cold rolled. Zinc has a hexagonal structure so it contains only two independent slip systems. However, for slip to occur, five slip systems are required so zinc does not undergo general plasticity. Instead it forms mechanical twins as an alternative to dislocation motion to accommodate the deformation.
Author(s): Prof T W Clyne, Department of Materials Science an

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Silal
This sample shows the typical structure of silal, irons with high Si content (5.5-7.9 wt%). It is a grey cast iron alloyed with 4-6wt% Si to provide good oxidation resistance. The high Si content forms a dense, adherent iron silicate surface film, which is resistant to oxygen penetration. The flake graphite iron Silal was one of the first heat resisting cast irons developed. Spheroidal graphite Si irons have higher strength and improved ductility. The structure shows cored dendrites of ferrite w
Author(s): Dr R F Cochrane, Department of Materials, Universi

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, as cast, dendritic
A cast alloy of high zinc brass, consisting of β dendrites. The α precipitates out of solution at the crystal boundaries, forming a structure of β dendrites surrounded by α. This is known as a Widmanstätten structure because a geometrical pattern of α forms on certain crystallographic orientations of the β lattice.
Author(s): Dr R F Cochrane, Department of Materials, Universi

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Al 67, Cu 33 (wt%), eutectic alloy
This alloy is of the eutectic composition and has solidified with a lamellae eutectic structure. The Al and θ phases form co-operatively. The eutectic lamellae grows in the principal direction of heat flow; the lamellae structure is stabilised by the high temperature gradient. In the lower part of the micrograph the lamellae structure breaks down.
Author(s): Prof T W Clyne, Department of Materials Science an

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Grain growth in the shot model
The behaviour of the shot model as it is rearranged by tapping, starting from a polycrystalline state with many small grains and ending with much larger grains. Note the presence of vacancies in the structure. From TLP: Atomic Scale Structure of Materials, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/atomic-scale-structure/index.php
Author(s): DoITPoMS, University of Cambridge

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Modeling grain growth with soap bubbles
A box containing some soap solution is used to simulate a grain structure. Rigorous agitation will produce an initial structure of many small bubbles (grains), whose evolution can be recorded. The soap film that separates bubbles has a surface energy, and the area of this will tend to be minimised.
Author(s): DoITPoMS, University of Cambridge

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Phase transformation from an isotropic liquid to a chiral nematic liquid crystal
Phase transformation (20x magnification, 3x speed) for an isotropic liquid to chiral nematic liquid crystal. Although nucleation begins in a similar fashion to the regular nematic, we can see the different regions merge with one another to form the final 'fingerprint structure' that is characteristic of chiral nematics with their helical axis parallel to the surface of the slide. From TLP: Liquid Crystals, http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/liquid_crystals/phase_transitions.php
Author(s): DoITPoMS, University of Cambridge

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Growth of a two-dimensional grain structure
A Voronoi diagram is created using Surface Evolver, from a random set of (N=1000) points to represent the grain structure. The boundary length is then minimised, subject to the constraint of constant area. The video shows the growth of a two-dimensional grain structure: From TLP: Grain growth, http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/grainGrowth/2dcomputersimulation.php
Author(s): DoITPoMS, University of Cambridge

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International Classification of Function, Disability and Health
This package was originally designed for undergraduates in Medicine at the University of Nottingham. It will also be useful to students in nursing, allied health professions and pharmacy. Practitioners in these fields, who are new to the ICF, will also find it a useful introduction. It describes the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a classification system published by the World Health Organisation to describe health status. This system is widely used in r
Author(s): University of Nottingham

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Ashes of Roses Evening Dress
'Ashes of Roses' synthetic chiffon dress, long batwing sleeves, deep cuffs fastened with five self-covered buttons. Bodice and skirt lined, sleeves unlined. Bodice is blouson style, skirt is full and cut in panels. Lining has long zip fastener, bodice back is secured with four self-covered buttons (slightly larger than those on cuffs). Neck is bound in chiffon, hem is overlocked. - from the The Betty Smithers Design Collection at Staffordshire University.
Author(s): The Betty Smithers Design Collection at Staffordsh

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Carbon-carbon composite
Carbon-carbon composites are manufactured from continuous carbon fibres which are woven in a two or three dimensional pattern. The fibres are then impregnated with a polymeric resin. After the component has been shaped and cured the matrix is pyrolysed by heating in an inert atmosphere. This converts the matrix to carbon chain molecules which are densified by further heat treatments. The resulting composite consists of the original carbon fibres in a carbon matrix. Carbon-carbon composites have
Author(s): Dr J Marrow, Department of Materials Science, Univ

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Carbon-carbon composite
Carbon-carbon composites are manufactured from continuous carbon fibres which are woven in a two or three dimensional pattern. The fibres are then impregnated with a polymeric resin. After the component has been shaped and cured the matrix is pyrolysed by heating in an inert atmosphere. This converts the matrix to carbon chain molecules which are densified by further heat treatments. The resulting composite consists of the original carbon fibres in a carbon matrix. Carbon-carbon composites have
Author(s): Dr J Marrow, Department of Materials Science, Univ

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As-cast wrought-grade aluminium alloy
The micrograph shows Al-Mg-Fe-Si containing < 1wt.% of each solute. No addition of grain refinement particles (e.g. TiB2). This micrograph illustrates one of the possible growth morphologies that a solidifying metal can adopt (c.f. micrograph 712). The dendritic structure is the result of instabilities in the solid-liquid interface during growth due to the rejection of solute into the liquid phase. Dendritic grains are more prevalent in alloys of high solute content and larger grain sizes.The Ba
Author(s): T Quested, Department of Materials Science and Met

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