An examination of the primary philosophies that have dominated government towards the end of the 20th century. To follow up look at the economic philosophical base of government creates different strategies that are followed.
The Celts - Quiz
To revise facts about the Celts
Applied Business Question
An applied business question is presented with the suggested solution encompassing entrepreneurship, management and the implementation of technology and change.
Deaf and Unemployed in Dubuque: The DiMarcos Remember the Great Depression
The New Deal launched a series of federal employment programs, including the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which not only provided jobs but also initiated many important studies of the depression's human toll. One such study, published by the WPA Division of Research in 1939, included transcripts of interviews by WPA workers with Dubuque, Iowa, families. The DiMarcos interview revealed that the disabled faced a double challenge during the depression: finding employment while competing for
"A Less Reliable Form of Birth Control": Miriam Allen deFord Describes Her Introduction to Contracep
Despite major cultural, legal, and medical impediments the use of birth control, including abortion, by American women was widespread at the turn of the century. In their quest to control unwanted pregnancies, American women could be surprisingly resourceful in the methods they used. In this audio excerpt from a 1974 interview with historian Sherna Gluck, Miriam Allen deFord described methods of birth control in vogue in the 1910s, including spermicides, douches, the Dutch pessary (an early diap
"Drug Him Through the Street": Hughsey Childes Describes Turn-of-the-Century Sharecropping
The sharecropping system that emerged in the South in the last three decades of the 19th century afforded southern black families a certain measure of control over their daily lives and labor. But the white landowners were able to use the legal mechanisms of sharecropping to assure control over the largely African-American workforce that toiled on the farms. Here Hughsey Childes, interviewed by historian Charles Hardy in 1984, described what seems like a matter of fact exchange in which the whit
"I Always Had Pads with Me": A G.I. Artist's Sketchpad, 1943-1944
In the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor and the declaration of war, thousands of Americans enlisted in the U.S. armed forces. Among them was twenty-year-old Bronx resident Ben Hurwitz. Like many of the men and women who entered military service, Hurwitz (who changed his name to Brown after the war) kept a record of his experiences. But his "journal" was a sketchpad, and, during his two years in North Africa and Italy, Corporal Hurwitz drew and painted at every opportunity. Hurwitz's pictures a
"Cast Down Your Bucket Where You Are": Booker T. Washington's Atlanta Compromise Speech
In 1895, Booker T. Washington gave what later came to be known as the Atlanta Compromise speech before the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta. His address was one of the most important and influential speeches in American history, guiding African-American resistance to white discrimination and establishing Washington as one of the leading black spokesmen in America. Washington's speech stressed accommodation rather than resistance to the racist order under which Southern Afric
"Organize among Yourselves": Mary Gale on Unemployed Organizing in the Great Depression
The Communist-led Unemployed Councils were the first and the most active of the radical movements that sought to mobilize the jobless during the Great Depression. In this interview, which is taken from the radio series "Grandma Was an Activist," relief worker Mary Gale, who was sympathetic to radicals and the jobless, described how she worked behind the scenes to encourage her clients to organize and demand better treatment. The jobless and the poor had few advocates for them, and radicals like
"Eight Hours a Day and Better Conditions": Andrew Pido Explains His Support for the 1919 Steel Strik
In the dramatic 1919 steel strike, 350,000 workers walked off their jobs and crippled the industry. The U.S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor set out to investigate the strike while it was still in progress. In his testimony before the committee, Slavic steelworker Andrew Pido described the discrimination faced by some immigrant workers and how that discrimination - along with long pay and poor conditions--encouraged them to unionize and strike.
This lab activity is part of the Starting Point collection. In this short, serial basic-meteorology lab, students identify different cloud types and estimate cloud cover over a period of several days. This website details learning goals, context for the lab, and teaching notes. A list of teaching materials and links to further resources are also provided.
Starting Out With Earth History
This activity asks students to place 6-10 events in Earth history on a timeline, first working in small groups and then as a class. Then, through questions, important points such as how certain events are dated, where humanity fits in, and so forth, can be brought up. The Starting Point website builds a context for the exercise by detailing the learning goals, teaching notes and materials (downloadable), and additional resources.
McNamara's Whiz Kid
Alain Enthoven, an MIT economist, was the country's first assistant secretary of defense for systems analysis from 1965 to 1969. In this video segment, Enthoven recounts how public interpretation of 'flexible response' strategy ran counter to both the administration's overriding goal-to prevent nuclear war-and its bottom line: that nuclear war is unwinnable. In his interview conducted for War and Peace in the Nuclear Age: 'The Education of Robert McNamara,' Enthoven sets the stage for the missil
Walter Robinson and His Music
Documentary containing interview footage with the Canadian composer Harry Somers, and narrated overview of his life and music, focusing on his interest in the native peoples of Canada. Includes performances of his music recorded for this program Somers compositions are performed for the piece. They include: 'Kuyas,' with Roxolana Roslak as soprano, Julie Ranti on flute, and Allen Beard on percussion 'Shaman Song,' with Roxolana Roslak as soprano and Casey Sokol on piano 'Soundings' was a music d
The Berlin Blockade
Clark Clifford was special counsel to President Harry S. Truman from 1946 to 1950. In this video segment, he recounts the 1948 Berlin blockade-the first major East-West confrontation in which Western policymakers were required to grapple with choices that risked war with the Soviet Union, a power seen as capable of overrunning Western Europe. Clifford recalls assessing the risk of an unexpected escalation of tension if moves made by the West were perceived as provocations. He heralds the decisio
Japan's Nuclear Policy
Ambassador Ryukichi Imai-journalist, nuclear engineer, and general manager at Japan Atomic Power Company-was Japanese ambassador to the United Nations Disarmament Conference from 1982 to 1987. In this video segment, Imai explains why he believes that Japan will never embark on a nuclear-weapons program. He also predicts that, while Japan stands alone in its reliance on nuclear energy, rising energy prices-even post-Chernobyl-will revive worldwide interest in nuclear power. In the interview he co
The Back Channel
From 1969 to 1973, Paul Nitze served as a member of the U.S. delegation to the Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT). In this video segment, Nitze describes the useful role that 'back channel' negotiations can play and discusses the particular problems with national security adviser Henry Kissinger's negotiations in the final days of SALT I. The second part of the segment addresses Watergate's impact on Nitze's participation in SALT II.Nitze's interview conducted for War and Peace in the Nucle
Sun, Moon, and Feather
'This hybrid musical comedy/documentary traces the life and times of three Native American sisters growing up in Brooklyn. The program combines song and dance reenactments of family and tribal stories with home movies taken over a thirty-year period.' Amid both miniature and full-scale sets depicting the family's crowded apartment, details of the lives of the three Miguel daughters and their parents emerge. Often, the narration of the three adult performers overlaps, contradicting and affirming
'A contemporary interpretation of the Bizet opera, this late twentieth century story of ill-fated romance set on New York's Lower East Side features Carmen as a rock-and-roll singer and Don Jose as a record producer. The drama is interrupted and examined through a series of audiovisual asides that serve as commentary, with images of fire and ice poetically illuminating the romantic and tragic elements. Carmen is played by New York musician Emily XYZ...." In this piece written, directed, and prod
"Sabda" is a eulogy to the North Indian poet Kabir and other Indian mystics. The title refers to 'the word,' the original sound of existence. Excerpts from poems are interwoven with a continuous flow of images and sounds of daily life situations in India. The Indian landscape is revealed through pictures of workers harvesting wheat, a full moon visible between two trees, and wildlife in their natural habitats. Scenes showing street life and details of temples and spiritual icons depict elements