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Un modèle informatique de scénario fondé sur des pratiques réelles d'enseignement et une théori
La conception de scénarios pour un EIAH nécessite la mise en oeuvre de théories didactiques, de pratiques réelles, de modèles et de théories informatiques afin de prendre en compte les contraintes didactiques nécessaire à la modélisation de scénarios d'apprentissage. La modélisation de scénario devient ainsi une problématique pluridisciplinaire. La contribution principale de cet article est de proposer un modèle informatique de scénarios prenant effectivement en compte des contrai
Author(s): Tetchueng Jean Louis,Garlatti Serge,Laubé Sylvain

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Reducing cognitive load and fostering cognitive skill acquisition: Benefits of category-avoiding exa
In this paper, we provide evidence against the common idea that worked examples should be designed to convey problem categories and category-specific solution procedures. Instead we propose that instructional examples should be designed in a way that supports the understanding of relations between structural problem features and individual solution steps, i.e. relations that hold below the category level. We illustrate in the domain of probability word problems how category-avoiding instructiona
Author(s): Gerjets Peter,Scheiter Katharina,Catrambone Richar

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The IRIS Shell: "How to Build ITSs from Pedagogical and Design Requisites"
The goal we pursue in our research is to build a shell for helping human instructors to develop intelligent teaching-learning systems in a wide range of domains. We aim to provide a system where a previously defined architecture can be adapted automatically into a new tutor using a set of instructor-generated requirements. Trying to provide a sound basis for this tool, we use a theory of instruction that integrates cognitive processes, instructional events and instructional actions within a thre
Author(s): Arruarte Ana,Fernández-Castro Isabel,Ferrero Bego

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A Programming by Demonstration Authoring Tool for Model-Tracing Tutors
Model-tracing tutors have consistently been among the most effective class of intelligent learning environments. Across a number of empirical studies, these tutors have shown students can learn the tutored domain better or in a shorter amount of time than traditionally taught students (Anderson et al., 1990). Unfortunately, the creation of these tutors, particularly the production system component, is a time-intensive task, requiring knowledge that lies outside the tutored domain. This outside k
Author(s): Blessing Stephen B.

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Intelligent Tutoring Goes To School in the Big City
This paper reports on a large-scale experiment introducing and evaluating intelligent tutoring in an urban High School setting. Critical to the success of this project has been a client-centered design approach that has matched our client's expertise in curricular objectives and classroom teaching with our expertise in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology. The Pittsburgh Urban Mathematics Project (PUMP) has produced an algebra curriculum that is centrally focused on mathematical anal
Author(s): Koedinger Kenneth R.,Anderson John R.,Hadley Willi

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Task and Interaction Regulation in Controlling a Traffic Simulation
In collaborative problem solving, metacognition not only covers strategic reasoning related to the task but also reasoning related to the interaction itself. The hypothesis underlying this work states that regulation of the interaction and regulation of the task are closely related mechanisms and that their co-occurrence facilitates collaborative problem solving. These assumptions are tested experimentally with a traffic simulator. The results show that co-occurrence of task and interaction regu
Author(s): Jermann Patrick

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Can learning from molar and modular worked examples be enhanced by providing instructional explanati
In two experiments we explored how learning from traditional molar worked-out examples—focusing on problem categories and their associated overall solution procedures—as well as from more efficient modular worked-out examples—where intrinsic cognitive load is reduced by breaking down complex solutions into smaller meaningful solution elements—can be further enhanced. Instructional explanations or self-explanation prompts were administered to increase germane cognitive load. However, both int
Author(s): Gerjets Peter,Scheiter Katharina,Catrambone Richar

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Designing and evaluating collaboration in a virtual game environment for vocational learning
Especially in vocational education, attention should be paid not only to the use of new technological solutions but also to collaborative learning and cooperative working methods in order to develop students’ skills for their future jobs. This study involves a design experiment including the design process of a new game environment, description of the script developed for this game, as well as the empirical study with multiple data collection methods, data analysis, results and conclusions for
Author(s): Hämäläinen Raija

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Training strategies and knowledge acquisition: Using the same reflective tools for different purpose
The Emma educational system embodies a Knowledge Based System (KBS) that models a problem-solving method defined at an abstract level. In order to allow different explicit problem-solvings, the KBS is based on a Task-Method modelisation. The objectives of this paper are (1) to explain how we take advantage of the flexibility provided by the modelisation by using analysis-modules that can study what the influence of the student's propositions on the rest of the solving is; (2) to highlight that e
Author(s): Choquet Christophe,Tchounikine Pierre,Trichet Fran

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Structuring collective activities with tasks and plans
Symba is a Web-based framework designed to support collective activities in a learning context. In order to make students explicitly work out their organization it dissociates an "organizational level" and an "activity level" and allows students to describe their organization as plans composed of tasks.
Author(s): Betbeder Marie-Laure,Tchounikine Pierre

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Mixing Human and Software Agents: A Case Study
This paper describes a multi agent approach of the organisation of a collective activity within a pedagogical context. We consider pedagogical situations where students have to explicitly define the articulation of their collective work and then achieve the different tasks they have defined. Our objective is to support these students by taking some of these tasks in charge whilst making them work out such organisation features. For this purpose, we propose to consider that the group of students
Author(s): Taurisson Neil,Tchounikine Pierre

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The Competence of Learning Companion Agents
One recent approach in developing computer-based learning environments advocates the idea of creating a social context inside the computer. It is claimed that when the learner is engaged into a meaningful dialogue with the software actors his/her learning will benefit. In this paper we concentrate on the collaboration with artificial social actors as peer learners. How äableä should the learning companion agent be in order to maintain the motivation of the human learner to collaborate? It has
Author(s): Hietala Pentti,Niemirepo Timo

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Mapcar: a framework to support the elaboration of the conceptual model of a Knowledge Based System
Constructing a knowledge based system requires the identification of the conceptual primitives and problem-solving strategy that will permit capturing the expertise in an adapted way. This paper presents an approach to support the elaboration of such a conceptual model by data-abstraction. Our work is motivated by the objective of constructing models that correspond to how experts solve problems, which is required for some applications, as, for example, presenting problem-solving in an education
Author(s): Tchounikine Pierre

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Directions to Acknowledge Learners’ Self-organization in CSCL Macro-scripts
In this article we present a conceptual analysis of the notion of learners’ self-organization in CSCL macro-scripts. We highlight that taking into account self-organization as an emergent feature of activity requires considering issues such as conceptual and technological tools to support learners’ self-organization, maintenance of coherence between the script pedagogical objective and the emergent organization and between the technological setting and the emergent activity.
Author(s): Tchounikine Pierre

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Dialogue in context, towards a referential approach in collective learning
In this article, we present research in the making of a collective work environment within the framework of a distance education course. We base our theoretical and methodological standpoints on examples of dialogical discourses recorded within the framework of this CSCL system called Symba. In fact, the results of previous research lead us to rethink our vision of the study of collaborative moments between participants in a computer-supported human learning environment that proposes several com
Author(s): Betbeder Marie-Laure,Cottier Philippe,Schmidt Coli

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Supporting Learners’ Appropriation of a Web-Based Learning Curriculum
This article presents an approach and tools that can help learners appropriate a Web-based learning curriculum and become active participants in their learning. The approach is based on a detailed modeling of the curriculum and intends to equip the learners with different computer-based tools facilitating a multiple point of view perception of the curriculum, while promoting self evaluation and self regulation of the learners’ curriculum performance. The proposed architecture is generic and can
Author(s): Rasseneur-Coffinet Dorothee,Smyrniou Georgia,Tchou

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Enhancing the Adaptivity of an Existing Website with an Epiphyte Recommender System
In this paper we propose an approach to enhance the adaptivity of an existing Website by plugging on top of it (“epiphyte approach”) a recommender system that displays additional tips and functionalities in a separate window. The recommender system analyzes the way the user browses through the Website according to predefined prototypical ways of using the Website (“models of use”) and then proposes information or functionalities that appear useful according to this model of use. Different mo
Author(s): Richard Bruno,Tchounikine Pierre

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Implementation of a computer algebra based assessment system
This article describes the design and implementation of the CABLE computer aided assessment system. Introducing a computer algebra system (CAS) to assist in marking allows instructors to design effective assessment schemes that are valid and reliable. A modular design approach allows system components, including a virtual learning environment (VLE), CAS and database, to be used for their respective strengths. Requirements for both interoperability and customisation for particular learning contex
Author(s): Naismith Laura,Sangwin Christopher J

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Making the abstract concrete: Visualizing mathematical solution procedures
This paper reports on an experiment investigating the effects of different kinds of computer-based visualizations on the acquisition of problem-solving skills in the domain of probability theory. Learners received either purely text-based worked examples, text plus an instruction to mentally imagine the examples’ contents, or the possibility of retrieving either static pictures or concrete animations that depicted the problem statement and the problem states achieved by applying a specific solu
Author(s): Scheiter Katharina,Gerjets Peter,Catrambone Richar

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Using e-mail to support reflective narration
This article presents an exploratory study of e-mail use for reflective narration. Narration is viewed from three perspectives: the narrating act, the narrative statement, and the story. These perspectives are used to characterize the 69 e-mails that were exchanged between 13 groups of children from three primary schools. The findings show that e-mail narration has monologic and dialogic qualities, and leads to cognitive and personal reflections on the learning task. We conclude that e-mail can
Author(s): de Vries Bregje,Van der Meij Hans

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