2.1 Introduction

I introduced Section 1 by suggesting that the auditory system had a special problem: unlike the visual system, it needed processes which would permit a listener to attend to a specific set of sounds without being confused by the overlap of other, irrelevant noises. The implication of that line of argument was that vision had no need of any such system. However, although we do not see simultaneously everything that surrounds us, we can certainly see more than one thing at a time. Earlie
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ - Original copyright The Open University

1.5 Summary of Section 1

The auditory system is able to process sounds in such a way that, although several may be present simultaneously, it is possible to focus upon the message of interest. However, in experiments on auditory attention, there have been contradictory results concerning the fate of the unattended material:

  • The auditory system processes mixed sounds in such a way that it is possible to focus upon a single wanted message.

  • Unattended material a
    Author(s): No creator set

    License information
    Related content

    Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ - Original copyright The Open University

1.4 Eavesdropping on the unattended message

It was not long before researchers devised more complex ways of testing Broadbent's theory of attention, and it soon became clear that it could not be entirely correct. Even in the absence of formal experiments, common experiences might lead one to question the theory. An oft-cited example is the cocktail party effect. Imagine you are attending a noisy party, but your auditory location system is working wonderfully, enabling you to focus upon one particular conversation. Suddenly, from
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ - Original copyright The Open University

1.3 Attending to sounds

From the earlier sections, you will appreciate that the auditory system is able to separate different, superimposed sounds on the basis of their different source directions. This makes it possible to attend to any one sound without confusion, and we have the sensation of moving our ‘listening attention’ to focus on the desired sound. For example, as I write this I can listen to the quiet hum of the computer in front of me, or swing my attention to the bird song outside the window to
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ - Original copyright The Open University

1.2 Disentangling sounds

If you are still feeling aggrieved about the shortcomings of evolution, then you might take heart from the remarkable way in which the auditory system has evolved so as to avoid a serious potential problem. Unlike our eyes, our ears cannot be directed so as to avoid registering material that we wish to ignore; whatever sounds are present in the environment, we must inevitably be exposed to them. In a busy setting such as a party we are swamped by simultaneous sounds – people in different pa
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ - Original copyright The Open University

Myasthenia Gravis - Cranial Nerves Exam - Facial Nerve (CN VII) Sub-exam - Patient 11
Patient is a 52-year-old African American male who initially presented with diplopia and dysphagia about five years ago. Serologic testing demonstrated antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor, and repetitive nerve stimulation testing showed a decrement in CMAP at slow frequency repetitive stimulation. He now presents with generalized myasthenia, dysarthria, dysphagia and diplopia during a pyridostigmine-holiday for Tensilon testing.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

The Giggler Treatment Quiz 2
The pupils will reflect on the content of chapters 3 to 8. They will deepen their understanding of the content.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Up Close with a Zapotec Urn
This article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they learn more about the Zapotec people of ancient Mexico.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Johnson Signs Medicare Bill Into Law
On July 30, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson joined former President Harry Truman in Independence, Missouri, to sign the Medicare Bill into law. In his remarks following the signing of the document, President Johnson credits Presidents FDR and Truman with paving the way for the bill. (1:55)
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

School of Law Commencement 2012 - Full Ceremony
The full ceremony of the Northeastern University School of Law Commencement on May 25, 2012.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Virtual Maths, Cylinder - Calculating Volume and Height
Interactive exercise demonstrating how to calculate the volume and height of a cylinder (includes links to other useful resources)
Author(s): Leeds Metropolitan University

License information
Related content

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Using Google News Timeline for Genealogy & Family History
This podcast shows how to use Google News Time line as a way to enhance family history research.  It is an ideal tool for people who want to further their genealogy research. Lisa Louise Cooke, host of
the popular Genealogy Gems and Family History: Genealogy Made Easy podcasts at http://www.genealogygems.tv shows you how to use the Google News Timeline step by step to learn more about your family tree. (9:05)

Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Animated Map of Holocaust History
An animated map that shows students where the camps were and much more. A map of Europe is used to show how the events spread and is well worth showing as it clearly indicates that the Holocaust was spread through Europe as the Germans invaded. The movie can be paused so that the students can discuss what was happening and where.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Global Music: Pappa Susso
Alhaji Pappa Susso performs on the West African harp as part of the University of Richmond Department of Music Global Music Series.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

29.05.2012 – Langsam gesprochene Nachrichten
Trainiere dein Hörverstehen mit den Nachrichten der Deutschen Welle von Dienstag – als Text und als verständlich gesprochene Audio-Datei. *** Bei seinem Besuch in Jerusalem hat Bundespräsident Joachim Gauck die Bereitschaft Deutschlands unterstrichen, für die Sicherheit und das Existenzrecht Israels einzutreten. Dies sei für die deutsche Politik bestimmend, sagte Gauck beim Empfang durch Israels Präsident Schimon Peres in Jerusalem. Gauck wies dabei auch auf das iranische Atomprogramm
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon Operations
NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks with Lead Integration and Systems Engineer Paul Brower about SpaceX Dragon operations as the spacecraft's unberthing approaches. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Combotronic: -s- (Interactive Game)
Combotronics teaches players to build words by combining word parts. Players are challenged to make as many words as possible. The goal for this game is letter sound -s-.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Angela M. Savatiel, M.D. Physician Profile
Meet Angela M. Savatiel, M.D. She was awarded her M.D. by the University of Louisville, and completed her Residency there as well. Her Specialty is OB/GYN, and she is Board Certified in Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Defrag: Disk Thrashing, Boot from DVD, | The Defrag Show

Microsoft tech troubleshooter extraordinaire Gov Maharaj and I help walk you through troubleshooting solutions to your tech support problems. If you have a problem you want to send us, you can use the Problem Step Recorder in Windows 7 (see this for details on how) and send us the zip file to DefragShow@microsoft.com. We will also be checking comme
Author(s): Larry Larsen

License information
Related content

Rights not set

The Olympians
This video is a photostory about the Olympians, an elite group of Greek gods and goddesses.  It is set to music as a variety of representations of the Olympians are shown on the screen, while text tells us the name of each of these Gods.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content