19 Conclusion

In sections 15–18, we examined the components and processes of an ICT system that is used for an everyday activity: shopping. We started by looking at a system map of the ‘checkout system’ before exploring the processes involved at the checkout. We considered some examples of networks and discussed the processes involved in a networked supermarket ICT system. Finally, we looked briefly at another way in which ICT systems can be used for shopping: e-commerce.


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6 E-government: other views

As you come to the end of this unit, I would like to offer some alternative views of what e-government could or should be. What these views have in common is the notion that ICTs have the power to transform radically the way things are done.

We saw at the start of unit that in the UK the e-government project grew out of ideas about modernising government. This is true of many other countries’ e-government projects also. What ‘modernisation’ means is not entirely clear, although it
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3.2.4. Ethics

The Turnbull Report, and a series of other codes relating to corporate governance, highlight some of the ethical principles which guide managers in the public and private sectors. In many cases, such codes are produced only after crises have occurred. Much legislation comes about in the same way. Information security management also has an ethical aspect, not least because of the need to apply the ethical spirit of laws and codes of conduct in new and unfamiliar circumstances.

The Orga
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5.2 Comparing WiFi and Bluetooth

Activity 20: self-assessment

5.1 Introduction

The final approach to developing distributed systems is based on a radical view of such systems. The approach is based on work carried out by two American academics, Nicolas Carriero and David Gelerntner. These two academics developed a language known as Linda in the 1980s. The language, and its associated technology, has always been thought of highly by other academics within the distributed systems area, but has never taken off in terms of commercial use. However, in the late 1990s Sun deve
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7.2.10 B2B exchanges

A B2B exchange is a website or collection of websites which make the process of carrying out business to business transactions much easier. Under this banner comes sites which enable multiple companies to procure services and products from each other; help businesses form temporary alliances to carry out activities such as joint marketing or project bidding, and enable a marketplace in raw materials to function.


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1.6 Implementation

Implementation involves the construction of a database according to the specification of a logical schema. This will include the specification of an appropriate storage schema, security enforcement, external schema, and so on. Implementation is heavily influenced by the choice of available DBMS, database tools and operating environment. There are additional tasks beyond simply creating a database schema and implementing the constraints – data must be entered into the tables, issues relating
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Working with charts, graphs and tables
Your course might not include any maths or technical content but, at some point during your course, it’s likely that you’ll come across information represented in charts, graphs and tables. You’ll be expected to know how to interpret this information. This unit will help you to develop the skills you need to do this. This unit can be used in conjunction with the ‘More working with charts, graphs and tables’ unit, which looks into more ways to present statistical information and shows y
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Introducing observational approaches in research with children and young people
This unit introduces you to analysing academic writing and, in particular, the way an article might be structured to clearly explain an investigation to other researchers. It explores observation of children and young people using qualitative observation approaches in small-scale studies. First publishe
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3.11.1 Answering multiple-choice questions

Multiple-choice questions usually involve you in selecting the right answer from several possible responses. The questions are frequently short, and your answer requires no writing. However, finding the right answer may require you to do calculations on paper or, in some cases, check back through an extract of material very closely to see which is the correct of two possible answers. In the Sciences Good Study Guide there is a good example on pages 265–68, which shows the series of c
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3.1 Introduction to applying your learning

In this part of the unit we invite you to apply some of the ideas we have introduced in a more structured way. One of the easiest ways to really understand learning how to learn as a process, rather than as a series of individual activities, is to apply it to a section of the course you are currently studying. Choose a section that is complete in itself - for example, a block of the course - and that leads to an assignment. We suggest that you read through the whole of this section and
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2.5 Mind mapping

The focus of this section has been on encouraging you to gather evidence about what qualities, knowledge and skills you have already. This is an important first step, especially if it helps you to realise that you have more than perhaps you realised. It is also an important step as it starts to make the case that it is important to value your qualities, knowledge and skills. If you value them, it is far more likely that other people will value them too.

However, it is also important to
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2.1 Introduction

This unit is about using learning to bring about personal change. This assumes that learning can help achieve such change. Section 2 aims to be the first step in showing you how this is possible. This section has three separate but related aspects:

  1. Section 2 looks at what the word ‘learning’ includes. This turns out to be a very wide ranging idea that suggests that human beings learn all the time. What we learn has impo
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1.6 Conclusion

At the start of this section, there was a list of what we hoped you would get from your study of this section. To save you looking back, the aims of the section were to:

  • provide you with a clear idea of what the unit is about and how it is structured
  • help you understand the importance of the word ‘skills’
  • start you thinking about your own learning.

It would be useful to think back over this list before moving on to section
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4.6 Line graphs

These are probably the graphs that you will be most used to seeing on an everyday basis. Line graphs are most suitable when you are just comparing one value as it changes with another value. They are less suitable when you want to look at several things at once; for example to study changes in oil prices and supermarket profits on petrol sales, the scales on the left-hand and right-hand sides of a graph would have to be different, and this can be very misleading (there is an example of this i
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4.3 Pie charts, bar charts, histograms and line graphs

These are all different ways of representing data and you are likely to be familiar with some, if not all of them. They usually provide a quick summary that gives you a visual image of the data being presented. Below, we have given a brief definition and some ideas of how each can be used, along with a corresponding activity. We suggest that you look out for similar examples in everyday life, and question the information that you see.


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2.6.3 Re-working Hansa's essay

Now we have looked at Philip's and Hansa's essays in such detail, what have we learned? Perhaps the best way to answer that is to write another version of the essay, building on all the things we have discussed. In fact, I have taken the basic content of Hansa's essay, tidied it up and shuffled it about a little to bring out her argument more strongly. (However this is not the only possible way of structuring an argument in answer to this question.) I have also woven in some of Ellis's terms,
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2.5.5 Writing style

As we have seen, Hansa tends to use whole clusters of words and constructions that are a bit over-formal rather than wrong. She seems to be trying to impress her reader. For example:

They therefore fled from the country in order to escape the restrictions and consequent boredom placed upon them by the very limited pastimes that a high ranking women in the eighteenth century was permitted to indulge.


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2.5.2 Punctuation

Some of the sentences we have looked at are harder to understand than they might be because they are not very well punctuated. Punctuation marks are the ‘stops’ in a sentence that divide it up into parts. They make it easier to follow the meaning of the words. For instance, it is easier to read this sentence of Philip's if we put a comma after ‘wealthy’:

With society becoming more wealthy, it was possible for t
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1.3 Developing your essay-writing ability

To develop your skill in writing essays you need to address two basic questions.

  • What does a good essay look like?

  • How do you set about producing one?

We will look at the first of these questions in this chapter and the second in the next.


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