2.1 Common sense and social problems

This concern with social construction may seem troubling or even a distraction from the real business of studying social problems. However, it is built on one of the starting points of the social scientific approach, namely that in order to study society we must distance ourselves from what we already know about it. We need to become ‘strangers’ in a world that is familiar. The defining characteristic of a ‘stranger’ is that she or he does not know those things which we take for grant
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Design thinking
Are you ever frustrated with something that you thought you could design better? Design thinking can structure your natural creativity to come up with solutions to all kinds of problems, and have fun in the process too! First published on Thu, 22 Dec 2011 as Author(s): Creator not set

Diagramming for development 1 - Bounding realities
This unit introduces you to the following systems diagramming techniques - Rich pictures, Spray diagrams and Systems maps. Using a case study project based in Africa, this unit illustrates the use of powerful use of systems diagramming for international development management. This is a companion unit to Diagramming for development 2: exploring interrelationships.Author(s): Creator not set

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4.1 Functions

A function is a process that, when given an input of a specified type, yields a unique output. This is a key idea in providing a precise, mathematical, description of processes in computing.

To describe a particular function, we first give the set from which the input will be drawn and the set from which the output is drawn. This information is called the signature of the function. An example will make this clearer. Author(s): The Open University

4.2.3 ATM adaptation layer

The basic function of the ATM adaptation layer is to convert the user data supplied by higher layers into 48-byte blocks of data. The ATM adaptation layer is divided into two sub-layers – the convergence sub-layer, and the segmentation and re-assembly sub-layer. The convergence sub-layer provides services to higher layers through a set of protocols, but I do not need to describe these here. The segmentation and re-assembly sub-layer separates the messages from the conve
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3.1 Introduction

Figure 6
Figure 6 Digital camera displaying image; a memory card is shown alongside

Digital cameras need to represent still pictures digitally,
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References

Revell, P. (September, 2004) Miniature computers are adding up to fun [online] http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning [story[0,10577,1314016,00.html Accessed 16 October 2006] Guardian Newspapers Ltd.

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19 Conclusion

In sections 15–18, we examined the components and processes of an ICT system that is used for an everyday activity: shopping. We started by looking at a system map of the ‘checkout system’ before exploring the processes involved at the checkout. We considered some examples of networks and discussed the processes involved in a networked supermarket ICT system. Finally, we looked briefly at another way in which ICT systems can be used for shopping: e-commerce.


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6 E-government: other views

As you come to the end of this unit, I would like to offer some alternative views of what e-government could or should be. What these views have in common is the notion that ICTs have the power to transform radically the way things are done.

We saw at the start of unit that in the UK the e-government project grew out of ideas about modernising government. This is true of many other countries’ e-government projects also. What ‘modernisation’ means is not entirely clear, although it
Author(s): The Open University

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3.2.4. Ethics

The Turnbull Report, and a series of other codes relating to corporate governance, highlight some of the ethical principles which guide managers in the public and private sectors. In many cases, such codes are produced only after crises have occurred. Much legislation comes about in the same way. Information security management also has an ethical aspect, not least because of the need to apply the ethical spirit of laws and codes of conduct in new and unfamiliar circumstances.

The Orga
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5.2 Comparing WiFi and Bluetooth

Activity 20: self-assessment

5.1 Introduction

The final approach to developing distributed systems is based on a radical view of such systems. The approach is based on work carried out by two American academics, Nicolas Carriero and David Gelerntner. These two academics developed a language known as Linda in the 1980s. The language, and its associated technology, has always been thought of highly by other academics within the distributed systems area, but has never taken off in terms of commercial use. However, in the late 1990s Sun deve
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7.2.10 B2B exchanges

A B2B exchange is a website or collection of websites which make the process of carrying out business to business transactions much easier. Under this banner comes sites which enable multiple companies to procure services and products from each other; help businesses form temporary alliances to carry out activities such as joint marketing or project bidding, and enable a marketplace in raw materials to function.


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1.6 Implementation

Implementation involves the construction of a database according to the specification of a logical schema. This will include the specification of an appropriate storage schema, security enforcement, external schema, and so on. Implementation is heavily influenced by the choice of available DBMS, database tools and operating environment. There are additional tasks beyond simply creating a database schema and implementing the constraints – data must be entered into the tables, issues relating
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Working with charts, graphs and tables
Your course might not include any maths or technical content but, at some point during your course, it’s likely that you’ll come across information represented in charts, graphs and tables. You’ll be expected to know how to interpret this information. This unit will help you to develop the skills you need to do this. This unit can be used in conjunction with the ‘More working with charts, graphs and tables’ unit, which looks into more ways to present statistical information and shows y
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Introducing observational approaches in research with children and young people
This unit introduces you to analysing academic writing and, in particular, the way an article might be structured to clearly explain an investigation to other researchers. It explores observation of children and young people using qualitative observation approaches in small-scale studies. First publishe
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3.11.1 Answering multiple-choice questions

Multiple-choice questions usually involve you in selecting the right answer from several possible responses. The questions are frequently short, and your answer requires no writing. However, finding the right answer may require you to do calculations on paper or, in some cases, check back through an extract of material very closely to see which is the correct of two possible answers. In the Sciences Good Study Guide there is a good example on pages 265–68, which shows the series of c
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3.1 Introduction to applying your learning

In this part of the unit we invite you to apply some of the ideas we have introduced in a more structured way. One of the easiest ways to really understand learning how to learn as a process, rather than as a series of individual activities, is to apply it to a section of the course you are currently studying. Choose a section that is complete in itself - for example, a block of the course - and that leads to an assignment. We suggest that you read through the whole of this section and
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2.5 Mind mapping

The focus of this section has been on encouraging you to gather evidence about what qualities, knowledge and skills you have already. This is an important first step, especially if it helps you to realise that you have more than perhaps you realised. It is also an important step as it starts to make the case that it is important to value your qualities, knowledge and skills. If you value them, it is far more likely that other people will value them too.

However, it is also important to
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2.1 Introduction

This unit is about using learning to bring about personal change. This assumes that learning can help achieve such change. Section 2 aims to be the first step in showing you how this is possible. This section has three separate but related aspects:

  1. Section 2 looks at what the word ‘learning’ includes. This turns out to be a very wide ranging idea that suggests that human beings learn all the time. What we learn has impo
    Author(s): The Open University

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