2.4 The economy

Turning lastly to the late seventeenth-century economy, a similar pattern of historical revision is revealed. Accounts stressing desperate poverty and backwardness have given way to accounts which indicate a more prosperous, vigorous state of affairs. In a survey of the Scottish merchant community, Devine has concluded that although the nation had not fully insulated itself against the calamity of bad harvests, its merchants were forward-looking and ready to innovate. They were not locked int
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4.9.1 Natural light

Activity 18

Can you identify the source of light used to create this portrait?

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4.4 Groups

If we agree that the posing of individuals carried messages for the viewer it makes sense that the posing of family groups can similarly be made to convey suggestions about the family and its character.


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2.4.1 The theological persepective

If we are thinking about individual perspectives on religion, there are three very common and useful terms we can employ: theism, atheism and agnosticism. In everyday parlance, ‘theism’ denotes a belief in God (or, more broadly, a belief in divine or spiritual realities); ‘atheism’ denotes a conviction that there is no God (or divine or spiritual realities); and ‘agnosticism’ indicates a lack of certainty or knowledge (gnosis) one way or the other. Very broadly speaking, these per
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2.3 Conclusion

As I warned you, it has been necessary to introduce here a fair amount of technical detail on North Indian music. You will not need to remember all of this – indeed, apart from a little basic terminology (such as rag and tal), some instrument names (tabla, tanpura) and the name of this genre (khyal), you may not come across any of these terms again in this unit. What I hope you will remember is what this has taught you about the way North Indian art music is put together, and what this tell
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Planning an evaluation

The evaluation should have clear aims and objectives. It is also helpful to decide where its boundaries should lie – how much or how little is to be evaluated?

Activity 4

0 hours 20 minutes
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1.3 Essential ‘voluntary’ work experience

For entry and progression into many careers, voluntary work experience is essential. Teaching, Law, Environmental/Conservation and Social Work are common examples but there are many others. Positions in the Arts, Media, Publishing, Development and Charitable sectors are rarely advertised and are also difficult to enter without a network of contacts, direct practical experience of the industry and enormous enthusiasm.

For more details on any of these look at the Prospects website, which
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1.4.3 Summary

  • The process toward European unification was initiated by top political elites in France, Italy, Germany and the Benelux countries after the Second World War.

  • New collective actors are progressively being engaged in European affairs, among them the Labour movement, regional movements and new social movements such as the environmentalism of groups like Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth.

  • European elites, although engaged in
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1.2.2 Summary

  • The results of successive editions of the Eurobarometer show that in most EU countries only a very small percentage of people, around 5 per cent, declare having an exclusive European identity, while up to 50 per cent do not have any sense of European identity.

  • European political identity is weak and there is a great variation across states.


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References

Abell, J. and Stokoe, E. (1999) ‘“I take full responsibility, I take some responsibility, I'll take half of it but no more than that”’: Princess Diana and the negotiation of blame in the Panorama interview’, Discourse and Society, vol. 10, pp. 297–319.
Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities, London, Verso.
Billig, M. (1991) Ideology and Opinion
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1.7.1 Footing

The practices which make up a speech event or the interaction order can be quite fine grained. In documentary programmes such as Panorama, for instance, interviewers have to be particularly sensitive to the accusation that they are biased, that they are not sufficiently detached or impartial. As Clayman (1992) demonstrates, one way interviewers achieve this while still asking pertinent and provocative questions is through adjusting their footing. The term ‘footing’ again com
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1.6.2 Joining the Euro-zone

For all the new members there will be a process of ‘catching up’ with the older members before the former can join the Euro-zone. The GDP gap between them remains considerable. In 2002 the GDP per capita was 60 per cent of the EU average for Slovenia and the Czech Republic (in PPP terms (see the footnote to Author(s): The Open University

2.1 Industrial revolutions and technological change

In this section I shall look at the way that technological innovations in previous eras, such as the invention of electricity in the early 1900s, radically affected the way society organised production and at how these changes spurred general economic growth. In many instances, the changes were so large that they defined an entire period, just as the rise of information technologies has led some to call the current era the ‘information age’.

The way that technological change can fun
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Introduction

The material presented here focuses on the politics of racial violence in Britain. The material is an audio file, originally 30 minutes in length, and examines the issues around this subject. It was recorded in 1995.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Crime, order and social control (D315) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this Author(s): The Open University

Acknowledgements

This unit is subject to Creative Commons licence  (attribution, non commercial, non derivative). For copyright reasons any third party materials must not be used in isolation from the unit or for any other purpose. Acknowledgements must always accompany use of unit. Any adverts contained in this unit are for the purposes of academic analysis only and do not represen
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Acknowledgements

This chapter is taken from Living Political Ideas (eds) Geoff Andrews and Micheal Saward published in association with Edinburgh University Press (2005) as part of a series of books which forms part of the course DD203 Power, Dissent, Equality: Understanding Contemporary Politics.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Author(s): The Open University

References

Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London, Verso.
Archard, D. (1995) ‘Myths, lies and historical truth: a defence of nationalism’, Political Studies, vol.43, no. 3.
Baogang He (2002) ‘Referenda as a solution to the national-identity/boundary question: an empirical critique of the theoretical lite
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2.1 Common sense and social problems

This concern with social construction may seem troubling or even a distraction from the real business of studying social problems. However, it is built on one of the starting points of the social scientific approach, namely that in order to study society we must distance ourselves from what we already know about it. We need to become ‘strangers’ in a world that is familiar. The defining characteristic of a ‘stranger’ is that she or he does not know those things which we take for grant
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Design thinking
Are you ever frustrated with something that you thought you could design better? Design thinking can structure your natural creativity to come up with solutions to all kinds of problems, and have fun in the process too! First published on Thu, 22 Dec 2011 as Author(s): Creator not set

Diagramming for development 1 - Bounding realities
This unit introduces you to the following systems diagramming techniques - Rich pictures, Spray diagrams and Systems maps. Using a case study project based in Africa, this unit illustrates the use of powerful use of systems diagramming for international development management. This is a companion unit to Diagramming for development 2: exploring interrelationships.Author(s): Creator not set

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