1.6.2 Joining the Euro-zone

For all the new members there will be a process of ‘catching up’ with the older members before the former can join the Euro-zone. The GDP gap between them remains considerable. In 2002 the GDP per capita was 60 per cent of the EU average for Slovenia and the Czech Republic (in PPP terms (see the footnote to Author(s): The Open University

2.1 Industrial revolutions and technological change

In this section I shall look at the way that technological innovations in previous eras, such as the invention of electricity in the early 1900s, radically affected the way society organised production and at how these changes spurred general economic growth. In many instances, the changes were so large that they defined an entire period, just as the rise of information technologies has led some to call the current era the ‘information age’.

The way that technological change can fun
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Introduction

The material presented here focuses on the politics of racial violence in Britain. The material is an audio file, originally 30 minutes in length, and examines the issues around this subject. It was recorded in 1995.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Crime, order and social control (D315) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this Author(s): The Open University

Acknowledgements

This unit is subject to Creative Commons licence  (attribution, non commercial, non derivative). For copyright reasons any third party materials must not be used in isolation from the unit or for any other purpose. Acknowledgements must always accompany use of unit. Any adverts contained in this unit are for the purposes of academic analysis only and do not represen
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Acknowledgements

This chapter is taken from Living Political Ideas (eds) Geoff Andrews and Micheal Saward published in association with Edinburgh University Press (2005) as part of a series of books which forms part of the course DD203 Power, Dissent, Equality: Understanding Contemporary Politics.

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References

Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London, Verso.
Archard, D. (1995) ‘Myths, lies and historical truth: a defence of nationalism’, Political Studies, vol.43, no. 3.
Baogang He (2002) ‘Referenda as a solution to the national-identity/boundary question: an empirical critique of the theoretical lite
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2.1 Common sense and social problems

This concern with social construction may seem troubling or even a distraction from the real business of studying social problems. However, it is built on one of the starting points of the social scientific approach, namely that in order to study society we must distance ourselves from what we already know about it. We need to become ‘strangers’ in a world that is familiar. The defining characteristic of a ‘stranger’ is that she or he does not know those things which we take for grant
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Design thinking
Are you ever frustrated with something that you thought you could design better? Design thinking can structure your natural creativity to come up with solutions to all kinds of problems, and have fun in the process too! First published on Thu, 22 Dec 2011 as Author(s): Creator not set

Diagramming for development 1 - Bounding realities
Diagramming for development 1 - Bounding realities, is a free course that introduces you to the systems diagramming techniques of Rich pictures, Spray diagrams and Systems maps. Using a case study project based in Africa, the course illustrates the use of powerful use of systems diagramming for international development management. This is a companion course to Diagramming for development 2: exploring inter-relationships. Author(s): Creator not set

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4.1 Functions

A function is a process that, when given an input of a specified type, yields a unique output. This is a key idea in providing a precise, mathematical, description of processes in computing.

To describe a particular function, we first give the set from which the input will be drawn and the set from which the output is drawn. This information is called the signature of the function. An example will make this clearer. Author(s): The Open University

4.2.3 ATM adaptation layer

The basic function of the ATM adaptation layer is to convert the user data supplied by higher layers into 48-byte blocks of data. The ATM adaptation layer is divided into two sub-layers – the convergence sub-layer, and the segmentation and re-assembly sub-layer. The convergence sub-layer provides services to higher layers through a set of protocols, but I do not need to describe these here. The segmentation and re-assembly sub-layer separates the messages from the conve
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3.1 Introduction

Figure 6
Figure 6 Digital camera displaying image; a memory card is shown alongside

Digital cameras need to represent still pictures digitally,
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References

Revell, P. (September, 2004) Miniature computers are adding up to fun [online] http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning [story[0,10577,1314016,00.html Accessed 16 October 2006] Guardian Newspapers Ltd.

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19 Conclusion

In sections 15–18, we examined the components and processes of an ICT system that is used for an everyday activity: shopping. We started by looking at a system map of the ‘checkout system’ before exploring the processes involved at the checkout. We considered some examples of networks and discussed the processes involved in a networked supermarket ICT system. Finally, we looked briefly at another way in which ICT systems can be used for shopping: e-commerce.


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6 E-government: other views

As you come to the end of this unit, I would like to offer some alternative views of what e-government could or should be. What these views have in common is the notion that ICTs have the power to transform radically the way things are done.

We saw at the start of unit that in the UK the e-government project grew out of ideas about modernising government. This is true of many other countries’ e-government projects also. What ‘modernisation’ means is not entirely clear, although it
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3.2.4. Ethics

The Turnbull Report, and a series of other codes relating to corporate governance, highlight some of the ethical principles which guide managers in the public and private sectors. In many cases, such codes are produced only after crises have occurred. Much legislation comes about in the same way. Information security management also has an ethical aspect, not least because of the need to apply the ethical spirit of laws and codes of conduct in new and unfamiliar circumstances.

The Orga
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5.2 Comparing WiFi and Bluetooth

Activity 20: self-assessment

5.1 Introduction

The final approach to developing distributed systems is based on a radical view of such systems. The approach is based on work carried out by two American academics, Nicolas Carriero and David Gelerntner. These two academics developed a language known as Linda in the 1980s. The language, and its associated technology, has always been thought of highly by other academics within the distributed systems area, but has never taken off in terms of commercial use. However, in the late 1990s Sun deve
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7.2.10 B2B exchanges

A B2B exchange is a website or collection of websites which make the process of carrying out business to business transactions much easier. Under this banner comes sites which enable multiple companies to procure services and products from each other; help businesses form temporary alliances to carry out activities such as joint marketing or project bidding, and enable a marketplace in raw materials to function.


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1.6 Implementation

Implementation involves the construction of a database according to the specification of a logical schema. This will include the specification of an appropriate storage schema, security enforcement, external schema, and so on. Implementation is heavily influenced by the choice of available DBMS, database tools and operating environment. There are additional tasks beyond simply creating a database schema and implementing the constraints – data must be entered into the tables, issues relating
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