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2.1 Introduction
The aim of this unit is to enable you to get started in Classical Greek. It has been developed in response to requests from students who had had no contact with Greek before and who felt they would like to spend a little time preparing for the kind of learning that takes place on a classical language course. The unit will give you a taster of what is involved in the very early stages of learning Greek and will offer you the opportunity to put in some early practice.
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1 Learning Classical Greek
The aim of this unit is to enable you to get started in Classical Greek. It has been developed in response to requests from students who had had no contact with Greek before and who felt they would like to spend a little time preparing for the kind of learning that takes place on a classical language course. The unit will give you a taster of what is involved in the very early stages of learning Greek and will offer you the opportunity to put in some early practice.
Author(s): The Open University

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Closing the gap between strategy and execution: making hard choices
In the second of a three part podcast series Donald Sull, Associate Professor of Management Practice, proposes that we should replace the liner view with an iterative approach that sees strategy always and everywhere as unfolding in a repeated cycle.

How individuals and organisations can innovate in a recession
Lynda Gratton, Professor of Management Practice in Organisational Behaviour explains why recessions are a good time for new management practices to emerge

2.5.1 The reductionist perspective

Although theology had been thought of as ultimate knowledge, in post-Enlightenment thought, religion came to be seen by many in the West as a hindrance to progress and the advancement of human knowledge. Some came to believe that a rational and scientific way of looking at the world, unconstrained by religious belief and ‘superstition’, would lead to religion becoming redundant.

In the nineteenth century, this idea was boosted by Darwinian theories of evolution. Charles Darwinâ
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1.4 The Victoria and Albert Museum's 'Sacred Spaces' exhibition

Some of these issues of representation were addressed indirectly by the Victoria and Albert Museum in London in 2000, when an exhibition called ‘Sacred Spaces’ was mounted in conjunction with religious communities. The idea was to invite groups from different faith traditions to relate artefacts in the museum to their contemporary religious life. In practice, this had various unforeseen consequences.

The Jewish group photographed some of the objects in the museum, and then phot
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2.3 Marketing department marketing

It is common practice for an entire organisation's marketing activities, such as advertising, sales and market research, to be grouped together in a marketing department. The department's function is to create marketing plan activities that are designed to increase the customer's understanding of existing products and services. The marketing director manages all specialisms. Marketing is seen as ‘what the marketing department does’.

Fashion Design at California College of the Arts
The Fashion Design Program at CCA allows students to focus on sustainability, innovation, conceptual development, and interdisciplinarity—all of which inspires new approaches to an established profession. Watch as the 2010 senior class prepares their final collections for the annual Senior Fashion Show. Our innovative program weaves time-honored skills of fashion practice (draping, pattern cutting, sewing, knitting, and illustration) with a comprehensive approach to sustainability, conceptua
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Lecture with Kristee Rosendahl (Graduate Studies Lecture Series fall 2010)
Filmed at California College of the Arts as part of the Graduate Studies Lecture Series | Timken Lecture Hall | September 28, 2010 In 1985 Kristee Rosendahl pioneered the field of user experience as the cofounder of the Apple Human Interface Group and a principal designer in the Apple Multimedia Lab. In the years since, as a VP, director, creative director, art director, designer, and manager, she has designed and delivered products across multiple media platforms and multiple channels in the s
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Alejandro González Iñárritu Masterclass
In a masterclass held in partnership with NFTS and The Script Factory, Alejandro González Iñárritu presents a brilliant and comprehensive account of his approach to filmmaking. An hour in his company reveals an eloquence to match his passion for the medium as he tells the story of his career and his practice. His fertile imagination is allied to a rare ability to animate the abstractions of the creative process through anecdote and metaphor. Watch the whole event at www.bfi.org.uk/live/video/
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6.5 Appreciating some implications for practice

I think for most people, the National Health Service would be experienced as a complex situation. If so this would be a good example of perceived complexity. Remember though, if you engaged with it as if it were a difficulty you would not describe the situation as one of perceived complexity. I could not call it a complex system unless I had tried to make sense of it using systems thinking and found, or formulated, a system of interest within it. This means I would have to have a stake in the
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6.4 Choosing to distinguish between complex situations and complex systems

Within some of the lineages of systems thinking and practice (Figure 7), the idea that system complexity is a property of what is observed about some ‘real-world’ system, is known as classical or type 1 complexity. Exploring type 1 complexity, Russell Ackoff (1981, pp.26–33) claimed for a set of elements to be usefully viewed as a system, it was necessary that:

  1. the behaviou
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6.2 Experiencing complexity as mess or difficulty

In this section, I want to take the ideas of mess and difficulty and explore them in the context of complexity. I want to determine how these ideas are connected, how significant the connections are and what the differences illuminate. I shall draw on the ideas of three writers: Schön, whose central theme is practice (e.g. Schön, 1983; 1987); Ackoff, who explores the characteristics of mess; and Rosenhead, who shows how different approaches to practice may be contrasted in terms tha
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5.8 Reviewing some implications for systems practice

The following anecdote exemplifies one of the main reasons why I think juggling the B ball is important for systems practice. The story relates to two practitioners who were able to connect with the history of organizational complexity ideas. It describes the process they chose to take in response to a highly specific organizational-development tender document couched in traditional ways:

Our first decision was to
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5.7 Being ethical

As outlined in Table 2, ethics within systemic practice are perceived as operating on multiple levels. Like the systems concept of hierarchy, what we perceive to be good at one level might be bad at another. Because an epistemological position must be chosen, rather than taken as a given, the choice involves taking responsibility. The choices made have ethical implications. Within systematic practice ethics and values are g
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5.5 Distinctions about systems practice

A tension has existed throughout the history of Western thought around whether to focus on parts or the whole. The practice that springs from this history carries the same tension. This tension has been particularly visible within science and philosophy for a long time and it gives rise to different approaches.

Emphasizing the parts has been called mechanistic, reductionist or atomistic. An emphasis on the whole has been called holistic, organismic or ecological. As Fritjof Capra (1996)
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4 Systems practice – unpacking the juggler metaphor

Systems practice, modelled in Figure 6, is a particular form of the general model of practice in Figure 3. An effective systems practitioner, Ps, is able to use systems approaches in managing complexity. I am not overly concerned with other approaches to practice, and will not be making any extravagant claims that a systems approach is better tha
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3.2 Making sense of the metaphor

The metaphor of the juggler keeping the four balls in the air is a powerful way for me to think about what I do when I try to be effective in my practice. It matches with my experience: it takes concentration and skill to do it well. But metaphors conceal features of experience, as well as calling them to attention. The juggler metaphor conceals that the four elements of effective practice often seem to be related. I cannot juggle them as if they were independent of each other. I can imagine
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2.2 Taking responsibility for your own learning

Not much of this unit conforms to the traditional pattern I mentioned earlier – the theory-example-exercise pattern. In particular, you will find you are expected to discover much of it for yourself. Why is this? This is a legitimate question and deserves a full answer. One year, a student at a residential summer school complained I had not taught him properly. I was, he told me, an expert and so why did I not demonstrate how to tackle the problem he was working on and pass my expertise on
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2.1 The nature of systems thinking and systems practice

There are no simple definitions for either systems thinking or systems practice. It's difficult to find definitions that capture all the perspectives that the ideas carry for people who think of themselves as systems thinkers and systems practitioners. Most systems practitioners seem to experience the same kind of difficulty in explaining what they do or what it means to be systemic in their thinking. Through experience I've developed some criteria by which I characterize systems thinking, bu
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