Décrire l'accompagnement des apprenants Proposition d'une extension du langage de modélisation pé
L'objectif de cet article est de proposer une modification du langage de modélisation pédagogique IMS-Learning Design en termes de description d'une activité d'accompagnement des apprenants et de la spécification des rôles des acteurs participant à cette activité. Les modifications apportées s'appuient sur un modèle d'organisation du tutorat que nous avons défini. Ce modèle a pour objectifs (1) d'organiser les tâches entre les acteurs tuteur et apprenants, (2) d'assurer auprès des a
Theory of Computation
A theoretical treatment of what can be computed and how fast it can be done. Applications to compilers, string searching, and control circuit design will be discussed. The hierarchy of finite state machines, pushdown machines, context free grammars and Turing machines will be analyzed, along with their variations. The notions of decidability, complexity theory and a complete discussion of NP-Complete problems round out the course.
CARRRE : un modèle de caring pour le support aux communautés d'apprentissage
Nous présentons un cas de formation à distance à l'Université de Central Floride regroupant 1200 étudiants chaque semestre. Après une étude exploratoire auprès des apprenants et des enseignants, nous nous interrogeons sur l'efficacité des EIAH dit « socialement prescriptifs ». Malgré des règles précises, les apprenants quittent l'environnement de la formation et se regroupent sous forme de communautés d'apprentissage efficaces. Après avoir exploré les différentes théories dis
This course covered the mathematical topics most directly related to computer science. Topics included: logic, relations, functions, basic set theory, countability and counting arguments, proof techniques, mathematical induction, graph theory, combinatorics, discrete probability, recursion, recurrence relations, and number theory. Emphasis will be placed on providing a context for the application of the mathematics within computer science. The analysis of algorithms requires the ability to count
La sélection collaborative de pages Web pertinentes
A l'aide d'une étude expérimentale, nous avons testé les impacts d'un dispositif informatique simple pouvant aider à la recherche collaborative de pages Web pertinente chez les étudiants. Dans l'une des conditions expérimentales, les membres d'un même groupe d'étudiants pouvaient avoir des indications quant aux pages Web déjà visitées par les autres membres de leur groupe. Plusieurs indicateurs comportementaux et de performances des utilisateurs (nombre de pages consultées, temps pou
Epistemic and Social Scripts in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning
Collaborative learning in computer-supported learning environments typically means that learners work on tasks together, discussing their individual perspectives via text-based media or videoconferencing, and consequently acquire knowledge. Collaborative learning, however, is often sub-optimal with respect to how learners work on the concepts that are supposed to be learned and how learners interact with each other. One possibility to improve collaborative learning environments is to conceptuali
Scripting argumentative knowledge construction in computer-supported learning environments
Argumentative knowledge construction in computer-supported collaborative learning environments is often weak. This experimental study analyzes two collaboration scripts, which should facilitate argumentative knowledge construction. One script aims to support the construction of argumentation sequences and the other script aims to support the argument construction. These scripts should facilitate the argumentative knowledge construction on both the micro- and macrostructure of argumentation durin
Narratives and their significance for childrens communication about their world
In this article I will give a description and a definition of narrative through historical review. This forms a background to my other purpose, to describe and discuss the importance of using storytelling as a tool for meaning making for the individual. In this text I will also raise the significance of stories as a tool for society to mediate culturally important messages to the individual and thereby shed light upon the dialectics between the individual and the collective.,part of Kaleidoscope
Computer-Supported Collaborative Video Analysis
Video can serve as a powerful medium for analyzing interactions involved in learning activities, for capturing records of teaching for uses in professional development, and for learners to construct or interact with videos expressively, but there have been many barriers to its collaborative uses. The DIVER Project is tackling core problems in advancing computer-supported collaborative video analysis. DIVER establishes a unique video platform for users to control a “virtual camera window” on
CML - The ClassSync Modeling Language.
The ClassSync Modeling Language (CML) addresses the problem of creating a controlling overlay to classroom learning activities, or e-leaming workflows. Our aim is to allow authors and teachers to generate a mapping from activity design to its implementation in a wirelessly networked classroom with ubiquitous use of handheld computers for information exchange. CML models e-learning workflows with three major components: actors, data objects, and interaction networks. Actors are the diverse perfon
Transformative communication as a cultural tool for guiding inquiry science
Inquiry-based science instruction offers great promise as a means of actively engaging students in authentic scientific problem solving, including consideration of research design issues. At the same time, inquiry introduces some difficulties. In particular, familiar "cultural tools" for classroom discourse, such as Initiation-Reply-Evaluation sequences, are no longer appropriate because they are premised on known answers and teacher-driven activity. To help support productive open-ended science
Reactive Learning Objects for Distributed e-Learning Environments
We present a concept of reactive learning objects that goes away from the hydraulic view of e-learning and gives to students activity a central place. First experimentations suggest that this concept should be enlarged to include distributed computation, distributed storage and Web services.
The impact of simulator-based instruction on the diagramming of the interaction of light and matter
We examine the conceptual development resulting from an instructional experiment with an interactive learning environment in geometrical optics for introductory high school physics. How did teaching-learning processes come to change the ways in which students depicted various everyday optical situations in paper and pencil graphical representations? We view conceptual development as a process resulting in part from increasingly aligning one's practices to a target community by means of participa
Learning Scientific Concepts Through Material and Social Activities: Conversational Analysis Meets C
The number of analyses of cognitive activity situated in a material and social world has increased. It has been particularly challenging to the theoretician and researcher to make the bridge from macrosocial theories of cultural learning to microanalytic details of situated human activities for learning in specific subject domains. The ontogenesis of conceptual change in scientific thinking provides a central case for examining this problem. A sociocultural framework informed by studies of conve
Augmenting the Discourse of Learning with Computer-Based Learning Environments
Computer tools for learning are often thought of as providing practice in working with symbolic representations. We exemplify a different perspective in which the technology augments the kinds of learning conversations that can take place. Research from the Optics Dynagrams Project illusmates contributions from this perspective. I will describe pre-intervention learning environment characteristics and student learning, our design strategy for new activities and technologies to address problems w
The Collaborative Visualization Project: Shared-technology learning environments for science learnin
Project-enhanced science learning (PESL) provides students with opportunities for "cognitive apprenticeships" in authentic scientific inquiry using computers for data-collection and analysis. Student teams work on projects with teacher guidance to develop and apply their understanding of science concepts and skills. We are applying advanced computing and communications technologies to augment and transform PESL at-a-distance (beyond the boundaries of the individual school), which is limited toda
Synthesizing instructional technologies and educational culture: exploring cognition and metacogniti
This research was initiated to examine instructional technologies and educational cultures in relation to identified cognitive and metacognitive strategies uses in school tasks. The project involved activities from the social studies curricula that were presented through two new software programs intended to support the development of problem-solving and reasoning strategies - IDEA [Interactive Decision Envisioning Aid, Pea (76)] Notecards (34) - and through instructional approaches bases upon "
A study of the development of programming ability and thinking skills in high school students
This article reports on a year-long study of high school students learning computer programming. The study examined three issues: I) what is the impact of programming on particular mathematical and reasoning abilities?; 2) what cognitive skills or abilities best predict programming ability?; and 3) what do students actually understand about programming after two years of high school study? The results showed that even after two years of study, many students had only a rudimentary understanding o
Integrating Human and Computer Intelligence
The thesis to be explored in this chapter is that advances in computer applications and artificial intelligence have important implications for the study of development and learning in psychology. I begin by reviewing current approaches to the use of computers as devices for solving problems. reasoning, and thinking. I then raise questions concerning the integration of computer-based intelligence with human intelligence to seme human development and the processes of education.
Supporting Conceptual Awareness with Pedagogical Agents
This paper describes a series of efforts in building and conceptualizing software agents for distributed collaborative learning. The agents are referred to as pedagogical agents. We have integrated pedagogical agents within two collaborative environments, TeamWave Workplace and Future Learning Environment. The role of agents in these environments differs from past work on software agents in their function as extended awareness mechanisms, focusing on task and concept awareness (conceptual a