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Learning outcomes

After working through these materials you should be able to:

  • describe and use a general classification of models;

  • outline and discuss the process of systems modelling, where models are used as part of a systemic approach to a range of different situations;

  • recognise that systems models may be used in different ways as part of a process for: improving understanding of a situation; identifying problems or formulating opportunities; supporting decision
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6 Summary

This unit has covered the background to systems engineering. It began by addressing the question ‘Why is systems engineering important?’ Two reasons were discussed:

  • projects go wrong, and the increasing incorporation of software means that they go wrong more often now than in the past

  • complication, complexity and risk are all increasing and need to be managed.

In the second section I examined the development of en
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5.1 Introduction: the general framework

The general framework of systems engineering adopted in the course consists of: a hierarchy of elements; aims associated within its outputs and process; a set of principles; a division into technical and managerial components of the process.

The lexicon of system engineering used in the course contains the hierarchy of elements:

  • strategy: meaning the accumulated decisions concerning the areas in which an organisation operates and its lon
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4.3 The use of systems engineering in organisations

The development of systems engineering was contemporaneous with that of systems analysis in public policy. Though its origins can be traced back to the 1930s and 1940s (Hall, 1962, p. 7), its more widespread application can be dated from the early 1950s. The earliest formal teaching of systems engineering was a course presented in 1950 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by G.W. Gilman, who was then Director of Systems Engineering at Bell Laboratories. Gilman was a strong promoter of
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Stage 6: Debate on feasible and desirable changes

The comparison undertaken in the previous stage can have two results.

  • It can cause opinions to change on the problem situation and the issues arising from it.

  • It can provide an agenda for change.

In either case (though both may result), the objective of this stage is to debate, with all concerned, the changes proposed to ensure that they are both desirable and feasible. The aim is to arrive at consensus about the prop
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6.3 The decision-making process

  • 4. Who is the ‘audience’? Who do I need to persuade?

  • 5. What benefits of the proposed change will those making up the audience value? What is their perspective on the proposed change?

  • 6. What is the process by which t
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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources:

Figures

Figure 7 (a): PDB ID 1BKV Kramer, R. Z., Bella, J., Mayville, P., Brodsky, B. and Berman, H. M. (1990) ‘Sequence dependent conformational variations of collagen triple-helical structure’, Natural Structural Biology, vol. 6, pp. 454–57

Figure 7(b): PDB ID 1ATN Kabsch, W., Mannherz, H. G., Suck, D., Pai, E. F. and Holmes, K. C. (1990) ‘Atomic structure
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1 Biological materials

Materials engineers have long recognised the impressive range and combination of properties offered by biological materials. Figure 1 shows some representative examples of the combination of tensile strength and toughness (measured by Young's modulus, or elastic modulus for polymers) offered by natural mat
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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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5.13.3 Circular plate

By now you shouldn't be at all surprised to learn that when a circular plate that has an outer rim that is free to vibrate is struck, the plate will vibrate in a number of modes at the same time.

The first four modes of vibration of a circular plate with a free edge are shown in Figure 21. As with
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8.2 Octave pitch and frequency increments

Because a doubling of frequency corresponds to an octave increase of pitch, it follows that there is no constant increment of frequency that always corresponds to a one-octave increment of pitch. That is to say, there is no fixed amount by which a frequency can be augmented that will always produce a one-octave pitch rise.

For instance, starting at the pitch A4 with a frequency of 440 Hz, we need to augment the frequency by 440 Hz to get the pitch one octave above (880 Hz). B
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Learning outcomes

After reading this unit you should be able to:

  • appreciate diagrams as a powerful aid to thinking and acting;

  • distinguish between systems diagrams and diagrams helpful in systems work;

  • demonstrate sufficient skills to ‘read’ and ‘draw’ a wide range of diagrams, following given conventions, that help improve your understanding of a situation;

  • select diagrams suited to the needs of the situation you are investigating and the purp
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Linda Walsh and Professor Tony Lentin

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following source
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4.4 Physicalism and the hard problem

I introduced the hard problem as an explanatory problem – the problem of explaining how consciousness arises. But it can also be presented as a metaphysical problem – the problem of saying what kind of phenomenon consciousness is, and, more specifically, whether it is a physical one. In this section I shall say something about this aspect of the hard problem and its relation to the explanatory one.

The terms ‘physical’ and ‘physicalism’ (the view that everything is ph
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Debbie Brunton

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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you will have:

  • developed your knowledge and understanding of the terminology associated with the culture, identity and power relevant to the Roman empire, as treated both in ancient sources and modern scholarship and presentation.


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2.2 Personal contact

Remember that although the city was important to him the emperor did not have to pass all his time in Rome, and many emperors visited other parts of the empire. Such mobility was often associated with military campaigns. For instance, there were a significant number of campaigns undertaken during the reign of Augustus, and these were generally headed by the emperor or members of his family. Emperors such as Gaius, Claudius, Domitian, Trajan and Marcus Aurelius also campaigned on the edges of
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2.2.3 Model 3: African + Roman = African persistence and no evidence of Roman traits dominating (sep

This scenario sees African culture surviving following the Roman conquest, and where Roman culture is visible it does not replace preexisting practice. Here we might imagine a laissez-faire attitude on the part of the Roman state, allowing the conquered people to carry on in their previous ways and the African people not needing to, or wanting to, adopt Roman customs, practices, forms of representation and cultural identity. In this model we might expect to find Roman and African trait
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2.2.2 Model 2: African + Roman= African traits continue to dominate and Roman traits fail to become

This model is more or less the opposite of the first, and the political domination of Rome has little or no effect upon the African people and their culture. Here we might expect to find evidence for politico-military control but little or no evidence for Roman culture or the acceptance of a Roman identity. This is perhaps the model we might expect to encounter in frontier zones at the limits of the Roman empire. It might also prevail in a scenario where a traditional society chose to reinfor
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5.5 Relationships in your organisation

In this section I have introduced you to case studies and reading that should have helped you understand how market orientation affects an organisation's performance. I have also asked you to look at your own organisation and make judgements regarding its performance. Near the beginning of this session I asked you to consider some questions from Drucker (1992). I have added a few more questions to his list and ask you now to try to answer these questions for your organisation. You probably do
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